Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Traceability for microwave remote-sensing radiometry



James P. Randa


A plan is presented for developing a standard for brightness temperature at microwave frequencies, as well as two different methods for transferring this standard to the microwave remote-sensing community. The standard will be based on existing NIST waveguide and coaxial radiometers, which are calibrated using primary noise standards. The radiometers will be converted (reversibly) to standard remote-sensing radiometers by connecting characterized antennas to the plane at which the device under test is connected in normal use. The underlying theory and plans for implementation are presented. Once developed, the standard and the method for comparison will allow microwave remote-sensing measurements to be traceable to the primary noise standards maintained by NIST.
NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR) - 6631
Report Number


brightness temperature, microwave radiometry, remote sensing, standards, traceability


Randa, J. (2004), Traceability for microwave remote-sensing radiometry, NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed April 23, 2024)
Created June 1, 2004, Updated January 27, 2020