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Towards Development of an ISO Container to Spreader Bar Sensor System



Richard J. Norcross


This report describes a sensor system that determines the relative pose between a crane spreader and an ISO container. The sensor system supports efforts to transfer cargo between ships in high sea states under ONR s HiCASS program. The sensor system is a collection of 3D sensors (flash LADAR and stereo vision) observing the corners of stacked ISO containers. The need to position the spreader s twistlocks into the ISO standard corner holes set the uncertainty requirements for the sensors at ?= 0.9 cm. The requirement to drive the servo control loop requires the sensor system to determine the pose at 10 Hz with ?= 0.5 cm. The report describes alternative sensor system configurations, methods to achieve the required transfer throughput and container or spreader positioning accuracy, and potential methods for sensors to perform in bright sunlight.
NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR) - 7418
Report Number


3Di, cargo handing, HiCASS


Norcross, R. (2007), Towards Development of an ISO Container to Spreader Bar Sensor System, NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed May 21, 2024)


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Created June 12, 2007, Updated November 10, 2018