Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Superconformal Electrodeposition in Submicron Features



Daniel Josell, Daniel Wheeler, W H. Huber, Thomas P. Moffat


Superconformal electrodeposition is explained based on a local growth velocity that increases with coverage of a catalytic species adsorbed on the copper-electrolyte interface. For dilute concentration of the catalyst precursor in the electrolyte, local coverage in fine features changes more due to interfacearea change than by accumulation from the electrolyte, yielding superconformal growth. The model is supported by experiments and simulations of copper deposition in 350-100 nm wide features, helping to explain the influence of adsorbates on roughness evolution.
Physical Review Letters
No. 1


copper, electrodeposition, superconformal, superfill


Josell, D. , Wheeler, D. , Huber, W. and Moffat, T. (2001), Superconformal Electrodeposition in Submicron Features, Physical Review Letters, [online], (Accessed April 17, 2024)
Created June 30, 2001, Updated October 12, 2021