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State-of-the-Art Review of CO2 Demand Controlled Ventilation Technology and Application



Steven J. Emmerich, Andrew K. Persily


The control of outdoor air intake rates in mechanically ventilated buildings based on indoor carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, often referred to as CO2 demand controlled ventilation (DCV), has the potential for reducing the energy consumption associated with building ventilation in some commercial and institutional buildings. CO2 DCV has been discussed, promoted, studied and demonstrated for the last twenty years, but questions remain regarding the actual energy savings potential as a function of climate, ventilation system type and control and building occupancy, as well as the indoor air quality (IAQ) impacts of the approach and the best way to implement CO2 DCV in general and in a given building. This report presents a state-of-the-art review of CO2 DCV technology and application including discussion of the concept and its application, and a literature review. In addition the regulatory and standard requirements impacting CO2 DCV are also examined. Finally, the relationship of this technology to the four key issues identified in the California Energy Commission (CEC) Request for Proposal No. 400-99-401 is also discussed.
NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR) - 6729
Report Number


carbon dioxide, control, energy efficiency, indoor air quality, ventilation


Emmerich, S. and Persily, A. (2001), State-of-the-Art Review of CO<sub>2</sub> Demand Controlled Ventilation Technology and Application, NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed June 22, 2024)


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Created July 1, 2001, Updated February 19, 2017