Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Software Engineering for Intelligent Control Systems



Tony Barbera, Elena R. Messina, Hui-Min Huang, Craig I. Schlenoff, Stephen B. Balakirsky


Understanding how humans manage information and carry out actions provides a foundation for the software engineering of intelligent control systems. The Real-time Control System (RCS) design methodology and reference architecture, founded on human information management concepts, provides a domain independent approach to the acquisition and representation of expert knowledge and supports implementation in a form conducive to maintenance of the knowledge base. Its architecture provides a structured framework for sensory, semantic, episodic, and procedural knowledge.
NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR) - 7095
Report Number


intelligent control, intelligent systems, knowledge bases, Knowledge Engineering, knowledge-based systems, Software Engineering


Barbera, T. , Messina, E. , Huang, H. , Schlenoff, C. and Balakirsky, S. (2002), Software Engineering for Intelligent Control Systems, NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed June 22, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created October 31, 2002, Updated October 12, 2021