Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

In Situ Stress Measurements During Aluminum Deposition From AlCl(subscript 3)-EtMeImCl



Gery R. Stafford, O Kongstein, G Haarberg


In situ stress measurements were made during aluminum electrodeposition from AlCl(subscript 3)-EtMeImCl using the waver curvature method. The upd of Al on (111)-textured Cu shows a stress response that is consistent with a two-step process where the first step involves the desorption of AlCl(subscript 4) from the Cu surface. This results in a tensile surface stress as expected from adsorbate induced surface stresses. The tensile stress is eliminated when the full incommensurate monolayer of aluminum is formed. On (111)-textured Au, an anion desorption signature is not observed, possibly due to the positive pzc for Au in this electrolyte. The full Al monolayer results in a tensile stress that can be attributed to both lattice misfit and Al-Au alloying. The bulk deposition of Al on (111)-textured Au appears to be governed by Stranski-Krastanov three-dimensional growth. Initially a compressive stress is observed that we attribute to capillarity. This is followed by a rapid increase in tensile stress that is consistent with nuclei coalescence and grain boundary formation. In this region of nucleation and growth, the total stress is the superposition of both stress mechanisms and each is dependent on the deposition potential.
Journal of the Electrochemical Society


Cu electrodeposition, grain boundary formation, in situ stress measurements, nuclei coalescence, surface stress, underpotential deposition, wafer curvature


Stafford, G. , Kongstein, O. and Haarberg, G. (2006), In Situ Stress Measurements During Aluminum Deposition From AlCl(subscript 3)-EtMeImCl, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, [online], (Accessed February 29, 2024)
Created October 1, 2006, Updated February 17, 2017