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Publications

Search Publications by

Andrew Ludlow (Fed)

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Displaying 1 - 25 of 51

Frequency Ratio Measurements with 18-Digit Accuracy Using a Network of Optical Clocks

March 24, 2021
Author(s)
Kyle Beloy, Martha I. Bodine, Tobias B. Bothwell, Samuel M. Brewer, Sarah L. Bromley, Jwo-Sy Chen, Jean-Daniel Deschenes, Scott Diddams, Robert J. Fasano, Tara Fortier, Youssef Hassan, David Hume, Dhruv Kedar, Colin J. Kennedy, Isaac Kader, Amanda Koepke, David Leibrandt, Holly Leopardi, Andrew Ludlow, Will McGrew, William Milner, Daniele Nicolodi, Eric Oelker, Tom Parker, John M. Robinson, Stefania Romisch, Stefan A. Schaeffer, Jeffrey Sherman, Laura Sinclair, Lindsay I. Sonderhouse, William C. Swann, Jian Yao, Jun Ye, Xiaogang Zhang
Atomic clocks occupy a unique position in measurement science, exhibiting higher accuracy than any other measurement standard and underpinning six out of seven base units in the SI system. By exploiting higher resonance frequencies, optical atomic clocks

Measurement of the 27Al+ and 87Sr absolute optical frequencies

January 21, 2021
Author(s)
Holly Leopardi, Kyle Beloy, Tobias B. Bothwell, Samuel M. Brewer, Sarah L. Bromley, Jwo-Sy Chen, Scott Diddams, Robert J. Fasano, Youssef S. Hassan, David B. Hume, Dhruv Kedar, Colin J. Kennedy, Isaac H. Khader, David R. Leibrandt, Andrew D. Ludlow, William F. McGrew, William R. Milner, Daniele Nicolodi, Eric Oelker, Thomas E. Parker, John M. Robinson, Stefania Romisch, Jeffrey A. Sherman, Lindsay I. Sonderhouse, William C. Swann, Jian Yao, Jun Ye, Xiaogang Zhang, Tara M. Fortier
We perform absolute measurement of the 27Al+ single-ion and 87Sr neutral lattice clock frequencies at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and JILA at the University of Colorado against a global ensemble of primary frequency standards. Over

Optical-Clock-Based Time Scale

October 30, 2019
Author(s)
Jian Yao, Jeffrey A. Sherman, Tara M. Fortier, Andrew D. Ludlow, Holly Leopardi, Thomas E. Parker, William F. McGrew, Scott A. Diddams, Judah Levine
A time scale is a procedure for accurately and continuously marking the passage of time. It is exemplified by coordinated universal time (UTC), and provides the backbone for critical navigation tools such as the global positioning system (GPS). Present

Ramsey-Borde Matter-Wave Interferometry for Laser Frequency Stabilization at 10 -16 Frequency Instability and Below

August 13, 2019
Author(s)
Judith B. Olson, Todd Sheerin, Holly Leopardi, Roger C. Brown, Richard W. Fox, Rick Stoner, Tara M. Fortier, Christopher W. Oates, Andrew D. Ludlow
We demonstrate Ramsey-Borde (RB) atom interferometry for high performance laser stabilization with fractional frequency instability −16 for timescales between 10 and 1000s. The RB spectroscopy laser interrogates two counterpropagating 40Ca beams on the 1S0

Measurements of 25 Mg + and 27 Al + magnetic constants for improved ion clock accuracy

July 15, 2019
Author(s)
Samuel M. Brewer, Jwo-Sy Chen, Aaron M. Hankin, Ethan Clements, Chin-wen Chou, Kyle Beloy, Will McGrew, Xiaogang Zhang, Robert J. Fasano, Daniele Nicolodi, Holly Leopardi, Tara Fortier, Scott Diddams, Andrew Ludlow, David J. Wineland, David Leibrandt, David Hume
We have measured the quadratic Zeeman coefficient for the 3P0 excited electronic state in 27Al+, C2=-71.944(24) MHz/T2 and the hyperfine constant of the 25Mg+ 2S1/2 ground electronic state, Ahfs = -596 254 250.981(45) Hz, with improved uncertainties. Both

Towards the optical second: verifying optical clocks at the SI limit

April 11, 2019
Author(s)
William F. McGrew, Xiaogang Zhang, Robert J. Fasano, Holly Leopardi, Daniele Nicolodi, Kyle P. Beloy, Jian Yao, Jeffrey A. Sherman, Stefan A. Schaeffer, Joshua J. Savory, Stefania Romisch, Christopher W. Oates, Thomas E. Parker, Tara M. Fortier, Andrew D. Ludlow
The pursuit of ever more precise measures of time and frequency motivates redefinition of the second in terms of an optical atomic transition. To ensure continuity with the current definition, based on the microwave hyperfine transition in 133Cs, it is

First observation with global network of optical atomic clocks aimed for a dark matter detection

January 30, 2019
Author(s)
P. Wcislo, P. Ablewski, Kyle Beloy, S. Bilicki, M. Bober, Roger Brown, Robert J. Fasano, R. Ciurylo, H. Hachisu, T. Ido, J. Lodewyck, Andrew Ludlow, Will McGrew, P. Morzynski, Daniele Nicolodi, Marco Schioppo, M. Sekido, R. Le Targat, P. Wolf, Xiaogang Zhang, B. Zjawin, M. Zawada
We report on the first earth-scale quantum sensor network based on optical atomic clocks aimed at dark matter (DM) detection. Exploiting differences in the susceptibilities to the fine- structure constant of essential parts of an optical atomic clock, i.e

Atomic clock performance beyond Earth’s gravitational limit

December 6, 2018
Author(s)
William F. McGrew, Xiaogang Zhang, Robert J. Fasano, Stefan A. Schaeffer, Kyle P. Beloy, Daniele Nicolodi, Roger C. Brown, N. Hinkley, G. Milani, Marco Schioppo, T. H. Yoon, Andrew D. Ludlow
The passage of time is tracked by counting oscillations of a suitable frequency reference (e.g., the number of revolutions of Earth around the sun or the number of swings of a pendulum of a grandfather clock). By referencing the oscillations arising from

A Faraday-shielded, DC Stark-free optical lattice clock

May 2, 2018
Author(s)
Kyle P. Beloy, Xiaogang Zhang, William F. McGrew, Nathan M. Hinkley, Tai H. Yoon, Daniele Nicolodi, Robert J. Fasano, Stefan A. Schaeffer, Roger C. Brown, Andrew D. Ludlow
We demonstrate the absence of a DC Stark shift in an ytterbium optical lattice clock. Stray electric fields are suppressed through the introduction of an in-vacuum Faraday shield. Still, the effectiveness of the shielding must be experimentally assessed

An optical clock to go

May 1, 2018
Author(s)
Andrew D. Ludlow
Bringing next-generation atomic clocks out of the lab is not an easy task, but doing so will unlock many new possibilities. As a crucial first step, a portable atomic clock has now been deployed for relativistic geodesy measurements in the Alps.

Progress on Optical-clock-based Time Scale at NIST: Simulations and Preliminary Real-Data Analysis

April 20, 2018
Author(s)
Jian Yao, Jeffrey A. Sherman, Tara M. Fortier, Thomas E. Parker, Judah Levine, Joshua J. Savory, Stefania Romisch, William F. McGrew, Robert J. Fasano, Stefan A. Schaeffer, Kyle P. Beloy, Andrew D. Ludlow
This paper shows the recent NIST work on incorporating an optical clock into a time scale. We simulate a time scale composed of continuously-operating commercial hydrogen masers and an optical frequency standard that does not operate continuously as a

Incorporating an Optical Clock into a Time Scale at NIST: Simulations and Preliminary Real-Data Analysis

March 29, 2018
Author(s)
Jian Yao, Jeffrey A. Sherman, Tara M. Fortier, Thomas E. Parker, Judah Levine, Joshua J. Savory, Stefania Romisch, William F. McGrew, Robert J. Fasano, Stefan A. Schaeffer, Kyle P. Beloy, Andrew D. Ludlow
This paper shows the recent NIST work on incorporating an optical clock into a time scale. We simulate a time scale composed of continuously-operating commercial hydrogen masers and an optical frequency standard that does not operate continuously as a

Hyperpolarizability and Operational Magic Wavelength in an Optical Lattice Clock

December 19, 2017
Author(s)
Roger C. Brown, Nate B. Phillips, Kyle P. Beloy, William F. McGrew, Marco Schioppo, Robert J. Fasano, Gianmaria Milani, Xiaogang Zhang, Nathan M. Hinkley, Holly F. Leopardi, T H. Yoon, Daniele Nicolodi, Tara M. Fortier, Andrew D. Ludlow
Optical clocks benefit from tight atomic confinement enabling extended interrogation times as well as Doppler- and recoil-free operation. However, these benefits come at the cost of frequency shifts that, if not properly controlled, may degrade clock

Photonic-Chip Supercontinuum with Tailored Spectra for Counting Optical Frequencies

July 24, 2017
Author(s)
David R. Carlson, Daniel D. Hickstein, Alexander J. Lind, Judith B. Olson, Richard W. Fox, Roger C. Brown, Andrew D. Ludlow, Qing Li, Daron A. Westly, Tara M. Fortier, Kartik A. Srinivasan, Scott A. Diddams, Scott B. Papp
Supercontinuum generation using chip-integrated photonic waveguides is a powerful approach for spectrally broadening pulsed laser sources with very low pulse energies and compact form factors. When pumped with a mode-locked laser frequency comb, these

A compact, thermal noise limited reference cavity for ultra-low noise microwave generation

March 23, 2017
Author(s)
Josue Davila-Rodriguez, Frederick N. Baynes, Andrew D. Ludlow, Tara M. Fortier, Holly F. Leopardi, Scott A. Diddams, Franklyn J. Quinlan
A 25 mm long, rigidly-held, ultra-stable optical frequency reference cavity is demonstrated. The cavity spacer has an easy-to-manufacture cylindrical shape which nonetheless exhibits a holding geometry predicted to be first-order insensitive to the

Ultra-stable optical clock with two cold-atom ensembles

January 1, 2017
Author(s)
Marco Schioppo, Roger Brown, Will McGrew, Nathan M. Hinkley, Robert J. Fasano, Kyle Beloy, Gianmaria Milani, Daniele Nicolodi, Jeffrey Sherman, Nate B. Phillips, Christopher W. Oates, Andrew Ludlow
Atomic clocks based on optical transitions are the most stable, and therefore precise, timekeepers available. These clocks operate by alternating intervals of atomic interrogation with ‘dead' time required for quantum state preparation and readout. This

Optically referenced broadband electronic synthesizer with 15 digits of resolution

September 5, 2016
Author(s)
Franklyn J. Quinlan, Tara M. Fortier, A. Rolland, Frederick N. Baynes, A. J. Metcalf, Archita Hati, Andrew D. Ludlow, Nathan M. Hinkley, M. Shimizu, Joe Campbell, Scott A. Diddams
Increasing demands in the high tech industry for higher data rates and better synchronization necessitates the development of new wideband and tunable sources with improved noise performance over traditional synthesis based quartz oscillators. Precision

Progress on the Optical Lattice Clock

June 1, 2015
Author(s)
Andrew D. Ludlow, Jun Ye
We summarize recent research in the development of the optical lattice clock, with particular focus on the ytterbium and strontium lattice clocks being developed at NIST and JILA. We highlight recent progress in improving the stability and uncertainty of

Optical atomic clocks

February 9, 2015
Author(s)
Andrew D. Ludlow, Martin M. Boyd, Jun Ye, E. Peik, P. O. Schmidt
Optical atomic clocks represent the state-of-the-art in the frontier of modern measurement science. In this article we provide a detailed review on the development of optical atomic clocks that are based on trapped single ions and many neutral atoms. We

Optical Lattice Clocks

January 1, 2015
Author(s)
Andrew D. Ludlow, Christopher W. Oates
Here we introduce and give a basic description of optical lattice clocks. We also briefly describe recent advances in these atomic frequency standards, looking to future work and applications.

Atomic Clock with 1x10 -18 Room-Temperature Blackbody Stark Uncertainty

December 31, 2014
Author(s)
Kyle P. Beloy, Nathan M. Hinkley, Nate B. Phillips, Jeffrey A. Sherman, Marco Schioppo, John H. Lehman, Ari D. Feldman, Leonard M. Hanssen, Christopher W. Oates, Andrew D. Ludlow
The Stark shift due to blackbody radiation (BBR) is a key factor limiting the performance of many atomic frequency standards, with the BBR environment inside the clock apparatus being difficult to characterize at a high level of precision. Here we

Quantum engineering of atomic phase shifts in optical clocks

November 24, 2014
Author(s)
Andrew D. Ludlow, T Zanon-willette, S. Almonacil, E. de Clercq, Ennio Arimondo
Quantum engineering of time-separated Raman laser pulses in three-level systems is presented to produce an ultra-narrow, optical-clock transition free from light shifts and with a significantly reduced sensitivity to laser parameter fluctuations. Based on

An atomic clock with 10 -18 instability

September 13, 2013
Author(s)
Andrew D. Ludlow, Nathan M. Hinkley, Jeffrey A. Sherman, Nate B. Phillips, Marco Schioppo, Nathan D. Lemke, Kyle P. Beloy, M Pizzocaro, Christopher W. Oates
Atomic clocks have been transformational in science and technology, leading to innovations such as global positioning, advanced communications, and tests of fundamental constant variation. Next-generation optical atomic clocks can extend the capability of

State-of-the-Art RF Signal Generation From Optical Frequency Division

September 2, 2013
Author(s)
Archita Hati, Craig W. Nelson, Corey A. Barnes, Danielle G. Lirette, Tara M. Fortier, Franklyn J. Quinlan, Jason A. DeSalvo, Andrew D. Ludlow, Till P. Rosenband, Scott A. Diddams, David A. Howe
We present the design of a novel, ultra-low phase-noise frequency synthesizer implemented with extremely low noise regenerative frequency dividers. This synthesizer generates eight outputs viz. 1.6 GHz, 320 MHz, 160 MHz, 80 MHz, 40 MHz, 20 MHz, 10 MHz and

Determination of the 5d6s 3D1 state lifetime and blackbody radiation clock shift in Yb

November 29, 2012
Author(s)
Kyle P. Beloy, Jeffrey A. Sherman, Nathan D. Lemke, Nathan M. Hinkley, Christopher W. Oates, Andrew D. Ludlow
The Stark shift of the ytterbium optical clock transition due to room temperature blackbody radiation is dominated by a static Stark effect, which was recently measured to high accuracy [J. A. Sherman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 153002 (2012)]. However