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A Review of Community Resilience Frameworks and Assessment Tools: An Annotated Bibliography



Emily Walpole, Jarrod Loerzel, Maria Dillard


Community resilience is a topic of increasing interest in public policy and planning, although effective implementation will require an in-depth theoretical understanding of the concept, as well as the ability to measure changes in resilience over time. In recent years numerous frameworks have been developed to operationalize community resilience, utilizing different theoretical and methodological approaches. As part of an effort to systematically document and compare existing frameworks in the Resilience Indicator Inventory, research led by the Community Resilience Program at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) selected 56 community resilience frameworks and assessment tools for further analysis. This annotated bibliography is intended to achieve two main objectives: 1) provide context to the primary sources used in the Resilience Indicator Inventory dataset, and 2) summarize previous work in community resilience measurement as a resource for future planning and research. Work in this area will inform NIST's ongoing efforts in resilience metrology, including facilitating the development of a theoretically and empirically based method of resilience measurement.
Technical Note (NIST TN) - 2172
Report Number


Community resilience, assessment methodologies, indicators, metrics, measurement, framework


Walpole, E. , Loerzel, J. and Dillard, M. (2021), A Review of Community Resilience Frameworks and Assessment Tools: An Annotated Bibliography, Technical Note (NIST TN), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online],, (Accessed June 19, 2024)


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Created August 12, 2021, Updated November 29, 2022