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Performance of Thermal Exposure Sensors in Personal Alert Safety (PASS) Devices (NISTIR 7294)



Nelson P. Bryner, Daniel M. Madrzykowski, D W. Stroup


Fire fighters can be overcome by heat or smoke of a fire and may be unable to alert other fire ground personnel to their need for assistance. Personal Alert Safety System (PASS) devices are designed to signal for aid if a fire fighter becomes incapacitated. Thermal exposure sensor technology has already been included in a number of PASS devices, but no standard exists for testing the performance of the thermal sensor. A series of static oven, flow loop, and full-scale experiments were conducted to demonstrate the performance of different PASS devices. This experimental data was used to develop a prototype standard test protocol which can used to quantify the thermal sensor performance.
NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR) - 7294
Report Number


PASS, thermal exposure, thermal response data, thermal sensor


Bryner, N. , Madrzykowski, D. and Stroup, D. (2005), Performance of Thermal Exposure Sensors in Personal Alert Safety (PASS) Devices (NISTIR 7294), NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed July 19, 2024)


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Created September 1, 2005, Updated February 19, 2017