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Optimal Field-Effect Transistor Operation for High-Resolution Biochemical Measurements



Son T. Le, Seulki Cho, Curt A. Richter, Arvind Balijepalli


Field-effect transistors (FETs) are a powerful tool for sensitive measurements of numerous biomarkers (e.g., proteins, nucleic acids, antigen, etc.) and gaseous species. However, most research in the field has focused on building discrete devices with high performance. We show that commonly used instrumentation in areas of physics and engineering can greatly improve the performance of FET-based systems for sensing applications. We review the state-of-the art instrumentation in the field as applied to sensing with FETs. We show how high-performance dual-gate 2D FETs we recently developed, when operated using closed-loop proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control can drastically improve both sensitivity and resolution. We further show that this closed-loop control approach can be extended to commonly used single-gate silicon FETs allowing the performance of virtually any previously developed FET-based sensor to be improved. Finally, we provide insights into further optimization and performance benefits that can be extracted by using the closed-loop feedback approach for applications in biosensing.
Review of Scientific Instruments


field-effect transistors, biosensing, signal processing, enzyme function, pH measurements


Le, S. , Cho, S. , Richter, C. and Balijepalli, A. (2021), Optimal Field-Effect Transistor Operation for High-Resolution Biochemical Measurements, Review of Scientific Instruments, [online], , (Accessed June 19, 2024)


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Created March 23, 2021, Updated October 12, 2021