Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Non-Linear Large-Signal Scattering Parameters: Theory and Applications



Jeffrey Jargon, Kuldip Gupta, Donald C. DeGroot


We introduce nonlinear large-signal scattering parameters, a new type of frequency-domain mapping that relates incident and reflected signals for sparse-tone inputs. We present a general form of nonlinear large-signal scattering parameters and show that they reduce to classic S-parameters are also introduced, and equations relating the different representations are derived. We illustrate how nonlinear circuit, specifically a single-diode 1 GHz frequency-doubler. For the case where a nonlinear model is not readily available, we developed a method of extracting nonlinear large-signal scattering parameters obtained with artificial neural network models trained with multiple measurements made by a nonlinear vector network analyzer equipped with two sources.
Proceedings Title
63rd ARFTG Microwave Measurements Conference On-Wafer Characterization
Conference Dates
June 6-11, 2004
Conference Location
Fort Worth, TX, USA
Conference Title
ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference


frequency domain, large-signal, measurement, microwave, model, network analyzer, nonlinear, scattering parameter.


Jargon, J. , Gupta, K. and DeGroot, D. (2004), Non-Linear Large-Signal Scattering Parameters: Theory and Applications, 63rd ARFTG Microwave Measurements Conference On-Wafer Characterization, Fort Worth, TX, USA (Accessed November 30, 2023)
Created June 10, 2004, Updated October 12, 2021