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Noise-Parameter Uncertainties: A Monte Carlo Simulation



James P. Randa


This paper reports the formulation and results of a Monte Carlo study of uncertainties in noise-parameter measurements. The simulator permits the computation of the dependence of the uncertainty in the noise parameters on uncertainties in the underlying quantities. Results have been obtained for the effect due to uncertainties in the reflection coefficients of the input terminations, the noise temperature of the hot noise source, connector variability, the ambient temperature, and the measurement of the output noise. Representative results are presented for both uncorrelated and correlated uncertainties in the underlying quantities. The simulation program is also used to evaluate two possible enhancements of noise-parameter measurements: the use of a cold noise source as one of the input terminations and the inclusion of a measurement of the
Journal of Research (NIST JRES) -


amplifier noise, measurement errors, noise, noise measurement, simulation, uncertainty


Randa, J. (2002), Noise-Parameter Uncertainties: A Monte Carlo Simulation, Journal of Research (NIST JRES), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed July 15, 2024)


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Created October 1, 2002, Updated January 27, 2020