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NIST Alternatives for Resilient Communities (NIST ARC) Software Tool: Mathematical Programming Model



Kenneth Harrison, Tasnim Ibn Faiz, Zeinab Farahmandfar, Shane Crawford, Jarrod Loerzel


The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Alternatives for Resilient Communities (NIST ARC) software is an interactive tool for developing alternative sets of actions that meet community resilience and cost goals, given hazard and interdependency information and socio-economic data. Community resilience planning is challenging as it involves several large-scale systems and public sector decision-making with numerous stakeholders. The goal of NIST ARC is to decrease a community's burden in developing viable alternatives for stakeholder consideration. This technical note details NIST ARC's mathematical programming model, which is the leading technical contribution of NIST ARC. The model variables, parameters (data), and equations of the two-stage stochastic mixed integer linear programming model are described, with the full model given in the Appendix. Results for a realistic example designed to test the suitability of the mathematical programming model for supporting interactive community resilience planning are presented. Finally, the NIST ARC decision support application that enables the use and application of the model, the plans for its further development and testing, and its role within the broader set of NIST-funded tools and guidance for the Community Resilience Program are briefly described.
Technical Note (NIST TN) - 2239pt1
Report Number


community resilience, disaster resilience, mathematical programming, linear programming, stochastic programming, hazards, simulation, optimization


Harrison, K. , Faiz, T. , Farahmandfar, Z. , Crawford, S. and Loerzel, J. (2023), NIST Alternatives for Resilient Communities (NIST ARC) Software Tool: Mathematical Programming Model, Technical Note (NIST TN), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online],, (Accessed June 25, 2024)


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Created March 9, 2023, Updated April 20, 2023