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Measuring the EUV-induced contamination rates of TiO2-capped multilayer optics by anticipated production-environment hydrocarbons



Shannon B. Hill, Nadir S. Faradzhev, Charles S. Tarrio, Thomas B. Lucatorto, Robert A. Bartynski, B. V. Yakshinskiy, T. E. Madey


The primary, publicly reported cause of optic degradation in pre-production extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography systems is carbon deposition. This results when volatile organics adsorb onto optic surfaces and then are cracked by EUV-induced reactions. Hence the deposition rate depends on the adsorption-desorption kinetics of the molecule-surface system as well as the basic photon-stimulated reaction rates, both of which may vary significantly for different organic species. The goal of our ongoing optics-contamination program is to estimate the contamination rate of species expected in the tool environment by exposing samples to in-band 13.5 nm light from our synchrotron in the presence of fixed partial pressures of admitted gases. Here we report preliminary results of contamination rates on TiO2-capped samples for species observed in resist-outgassing measurements (benzene, isobutene, toluene and tert-butylbenzene) in the pressure range (10-6 to 10-4) Pa which all display an unexpected logarithmic dependence on pressure. This scaling is in agreement with previous EUV exposures of other species at NIST as well as independent measurements of coverage performed at Rutgers University. These results are consistent with a molecular desorption energy that decreases with coverage due to molecular interactions (Temkin model). Use of the proper scaling law is critical when estimating optic lifetimes by extrapolating over the 3-to-6 orders of magnitude between accelerated-testing and tool-environment partial pressures.
Proceedings Title
Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 7271, Alternative Lithographic Technologies
Conference Dates
February 24-26, 2009
Conference Location
San Jose, CA
Conference Title
Alternative Lithographic Technologies


carbon contamination, carbon deposition, EUV optics contamination, EUV optics lifetime, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), TiO2


Hill, S. , Faradzhev, N. , Tarrio, C. , Lucatorto, T. , Bartynski, R. , , B. and , T. (2009), Measuring the EUV-induced contamination rates of TiO2-capped multilayer optics by anticipated production-environment hydrocarbons, Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 7271, Alternative Lithographic Technologies, San Jose, CA (Accessed April 13, 2024)
Created October 1, 2009, Updated February 22, 2017