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Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerant Blends for HFC-134a



Piotr A. Domanski, Mark O. McLinden, Ian H. Bell, Gregory T. Linteris


The goal of this study was to identify non-flammable, non-toxic, low global-warming-potential (GWP) replacements for HFC-134a in an air-conditioning system that would maintain the energy efficiency and capacity. A prior exhaustive work demonstrated that all single-component refrigerants that could serve—from the performance stand-point—as a replacement for HFC-134a are at least mildly flammable. For this reason, this study undertook an evaluation of refrigerant binary and ternary blends to explore the possibility of formulating a non-flammable blend that would satisfy the requirements of military systems.
Technical Note (NIST TN) - 2014
Report Number


Air conditioning, Coefficient of performance, Cycle simulation, Flammability, Refrigerants, Vapor compression, Volumetric capacity.


Domanski, P. , McLinden, M. , Bell, I. and Linteris, G. (2018), Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerant Blends for HFC-134a, Technical Note (NIST TN), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed April 23, 2024)
Created September 7, 2018, Updated November 10, 2018