Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerant Blends for HFC-134a



Piotr A. Domanski, Mark O. McLinden, Ian H. Bell, Gregory T. Linteris


The goal of this study was to identify non-flammable, non-toxic, low global-warming-potential (GWP) replacements for HFC-134a in an air-conditioning system that would maintain the energy efficiency and capacity. A prior exhaustive work demonstrated that all single-component refrigerants that could serve—from the performance stand-point—as a replacement for HFC-134a are at least mildly flammable. For this reason, this study undertook an evaluation of refrigerant binary and ternary blends to explore the possibility of formulating a non-flammable blend that would satisfy the requirements of military systems.
Technical Note (NIST TN) - 2014
Report Number


Air conditioning, Coefficient of performance, Cycle simulation, Flammability, Refrigerants, Vapor compression, Volumetric capacity.
Created September 7, 2018, Updated November 10, 2018