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Investigations of Noise in Measurements of Electronic Voltage Standards



Thomas J. Witt, Yi-hua D. Tang


We have studied the voltage noise of electronic voltage standards based on Zener diode references (Zeners). Ten volt Zener outputs were compared to NIST Josephson standards using a DVM to record voltage differences. The data were analyzed using the Allan variance. We have characterized the 1/f noise of 22 Zeners of three types. We also present evidence of enhanced white noise in Zeners.
Proceedings Title
CPEM Digest
Conference Dates
June 27-July 2, 2004
Conference Location
London, 1, UK
Conference Title
Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements


1/f noise, Allan variance, Josephson voltage standard, power spectral density, Zener standard


Witt, T. and Tang, Y. (2004), Investigations of Noise in Measurements of Electronic Voltage Standards, CPEM Digest, London, 1, UK, [online], (Accessed May 26, 2024)


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Created May 31, 2004, Updated October 12, 2021