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An Intra-Volume Ad Hoc Array Concept for Improved Public-Safety Communications



Christopher L. Holloway


Here we report on the testing and measurements of the ad hoc array concept in buildings. The overall concept is to use randomly located or placed wireless devices in a coordinated manner in order to increase the radio frequency signal at otherwise unreachable locations. A typical ad hoc network is limited to coverage area achieved by the useable coverage of single nodes. We seek to extend the radio frequency coverage by using two or more nodes as elements of an ad hoc array. Previous simulations and theoretical analysis have suggested the benefits of the array concept; these measurements in real-world environments demonstrate that the ad hoc array technique can provide meaningful gain, up to 10 dB with only four elements. The measurements also indicate a typical gain of 2 dB to 6 dB using only two elements.
Technical Note (NIST TN) - 1553
Report Number


ad hoc array, wireless arrays, emergency responders, multipath, excess path loss, radio communications, radio propagation experiments, weak-signal detection, public-safety communications.


Holloway, C. (2010), An Intra-Volume Ad Hoc Array Concept for Improved Public-Safety Communications, Technical Note (NIST TN), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed June 22, 2024)


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Created August 1, 2010, Updated November 10, 2018