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An Integrated Gaming and Simulation Architecture for Incident Management Training



Sanjay Jain, Charles R. McLean


The nation?s emergency responders need to work in a coordinated, well-planned manner to best mitigate the impact of an emergency incident. They need to be trained and be ready to act in view of the increased security threat. The training has been traditionally provided using live exercises at a great expense. Simulation and gaming systems could provide a wider range of training at a much lower expense. The incident management simulation-based training systems that are available or under development today are typically focused on a macro level sequence of events. A few systems targeted at individual responders are under development using gaming environments. Separate uses of such systems provide disparate experiences to decision makers and individual responders. There is a need to provide a common training experience to these groups for better effectiveness. This paper presents a novel approach integrating gaming and simulation systems for training of decision makers and responders on the same scenarios preparing them to work together as a team. An integrated systems architecture is proposed for this purpose. Major modules in gaming and simulation subsystems are defined and interaction mechanisms established. Advanced visualization, human interaction, data access and management capabilities needed for meeting the training objectives are described. Research and standards issues for implementation of the proposed architecture are discussed.
NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR) - 7295
Report Number


architecture, emergency response, gaming, incident management, integration, modeling, simulation, training


Jain, S. and McLean, C. (2006), An Integrated Gaming and Simulation Architecture for Incident Management Training, NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online],, (Accessed June 21, 2024)


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Created February 28, 2006, Updated October 12, 2021