Implications for Earthquake Risk Reduction in the United States From the Kocaeli, Turkey, Earthquake of August 17, 1999
John L. Gross, Long T. Phan
The moment magnitude (MW) 7.4 Kocaeli, Turkey, earthquake struck the Kocaeli province of northwestern Turkey on Tuesday, August 17, 1999 at 3:02 a.m. local time and caused extensive damage to buildings (an estimated 250,000 building units suffered from light damage to total collapse). The damaged buildings, which include multistory residential buildings and buildings containing commercial space on the first floor and residential units above, were typically four- to eight-story reinforced concrete frame constructions (column-slab system) with masonry infill. Throughout the affected region, the most common type of structural failure observed was shear failure of first-story columns. In Adapazari, which is situated on liquefiable soil, instances of structural damage due to soil failure were also observed. Turkey has adopted modern building codes with up-to-date seismic design provisions. However, the heavy damage or collapse of some buildings where nearby buildings of similar size, configuration, and construction survived relatively intact, suggests that the poor performance of some buildings may be traced to failure to design or construct in compliance with established building codes.
ASCE World Structural Engineering Conference (USGS Circular 1193)
and Phan, L.
Implications for Earthquake Risk Reduction in the United States From the Kocaeli, Turkey, Earthquake of August 17, 1999, ASCE World Structural Engineering Conference (USGS Circular 1193), -1, [online], https://tsapps.nist.gov/publication/get_pdf.cfm?pub_id=860243
(Accessed September 29, 2023)