Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Green’s function modeling of response of two-dimensional materials to point probes for scanning probe microscopy



Vinod K. Tewary, Rebecca C. Quardokus, Frank W. DelRio


A Green’s function (GF) method is developed for interpreting scanning probe microscopy (SPM) measurements on new two-dimensional (2D) materials. GFs for the Laplace/Poisson nist-equations are calculated by using a virtual source method for two separate cases of a finite material containing a rectangular defect and a hexagonal defect. The prescribed boundary values are reproduced almost exactly by the calculated GFs. It is suggested that the GF is not just a mathematical artefact but a basic physical characteristic of material systems, which can be measured directly by SPM for 2D solids. This should make SPM an even more powerful technique for characterization of 2D materials.


antidots, Green’s function, materials characterization, scanning probe microscopy, two-dimensional materials, quantum computers
Created June 13, 2016, Updated November 10, 2018