Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Fundamentals of Developer-Resist Interactions for Line-Edge Roughness and Critical Dimension Control in Model 248 nm and 157 nm Photoresists



Vivek M. Prabhu, M Wang, E Jablonski, B D. Vogt, Eric K. Lin, Wen-Li Wu, D L. Goldfarb, M Angelopoulos, H Ito


Organic polar solvent (1-butanol) versus aqueous base (tetramethylammonium hydroxide, (TMAH)) development quality are distinguished by neutral versus charged polymer (polyelectrolyte) dissolution behavior of photoresist bilayers on silicon substrates comprising poly(4-hydroxystyrene) and poly(4-tert-butoxycarbonyloxystyrene), PHOSt and PBOCSt, respectively. This model line edge was broadened by photoacid catalyzed deprotection to a final interfacial width of 35.7 and subjected to different developers. 1-butanol develops with an increased penetration depth than aqueous base development consistent with an increased solubility of the protected containing component in the organic solvent. This enhanced dissolution with the polar solvent results in an increased surface roughness of 73 ,whereas the development with TMAH at concentrations between (0.1 to 1.1) M1 leads to surface roughness between (4.5 to 14.4) , as measured by atomic force microscopy. These measurements suggest that the elimination of resist swelling, in the presence of a protection gradient, is a viable strategy to reduce roughness and control critical dimensions. The influence of added salt to developer solutions was also examined by developing the model bilayer. A decrease in surface roughness from (10 to 6.5) was observed between (0 to 0.70) M KCl in 0.26 M TMAH.
Proceedings Title
Proceedings of SPIE
Conference Dates
February 1, 2004
Conference Location
Santa Clara, CA
Conference Title
SPIE Advanced Lithography


dissolution, lithography, neutron reflectivity, polyelectrolyte, roughness, swelling


Prabhu, V. , Wang, M. , Jablonski, E. , Vogt, B. , Lin, E. , Wu, W. , Goldfarb, D. , Angelopoulos, M. and Ito, H. (2004), Fundamentals of Developer-Resist Interactions for Line-Edge Roughness and Critical Dimension Control in Model 248 nm and 157 nm Photoresists, Proceedings of SPIE, Santa Clara, CA, [online], (Accessed July 17, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created May 1, 2004, Updated February 19, 2017