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Fire Fighting Properties (NISTIR 6191)



D W. Stroup, Daniel M. Madrzykowski


Water uses several different mechanisms to suppress and extinguish fires: fuel cooling, flame cooling, oxygen displacement and reduction of radiation feedback to the fuel. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine which of these mechanisms play dominant roles in the suppression of Class A fires and which mechanisms are enhanced by addition of the agents. These laboratory-scale experiments have the advantage of being able to examine individual mechanisms one at a time. The sections in this chapter address experiments conducted to quantify specific heat, droplet size, fuel cooling and penetration, and fuel surface contact.
NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR) - 6191
Report Number


fire fighting, specific heat, fire suppression, penetration, drop sizes, water, velocity, fog, nozzles


Stroup, D. and Madrzykowski, D. (1998), Fire Fighting Properties (NISTIR 6191), NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed June 16, 2024)


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Created July 1, 1998, Updated November 10, 2018