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The Evolution of Time Measurement: Part 3 - Atomic Clocks; The Evolution of Time Measurement: Part 4 - Atomic Second

Published

Author(s)

Michael A. Lombardi

Abstract

A historical article about the origins and the development ofatomic clocks and oscillators (Part III of a IV-part series). It describes the first atomic clock experiments, early laboratory and commercial cesium clocks, and the transition from astronomical to atomic timekeeping. It also describes cesium fountain clocks, the most accurate laboratory standards being used today.
Citation
IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine
Volume
15

Keywords

atomic time, cesium, clocks, frequency, time

Citation

Lombardi, M. (2012), The Evolution of Time Measurement: Part 3 - Atomic Clocks; The Evolution of Time Measurement: Part 4 - Atomic Second, IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine (Accessed April 12, 2024)
Created February 1, 2012, Updated February 19, 2017