Entropic-based separation of diastereomers. Size-exclusion chromatography with on-line viscometry and refractometry detection for analysis of blends of mannose and galactose methyl-alpha-pyranosides at "ideal" size-exclusion conditions
Andre M. Striegel, Steven Trainoff
TThe separation of carbohydrate diastereomers by an ideal size-exclusion mechanism, i.e., in the absence of enthalpic contributions to the separation, can be considered one of the grand challenges in chromatography: Can a difference in the location of a single axial hydroxy group on a pyranose ring (e.g., the axial OH being located on carbon 2 versus on carbon 4 of the ring) sufficiently affect the solution conformational entropy of a monosaccharide in a manner which allows for members of a diastereomeric pair to be separated from each other by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC)? Previous attempts at answering this question, for aqueous solutions, have been thwarted by the mutarotation of sugars in water. Here, the matter is addressed by employing the non-mutarotating methyl-alpha-pyranosides of D-mannose and D-galactose. We show for the first time, using SEC columns, the entropically-driven separation of members of this diastereomeric pair, at a resolution of 1.2 to 1.3 and with only a 0.4 % to 1 % change in solute distribution coefficient over a 25 oC range, thereby demonstrating the ideality of the separation. It is also shown how the newest generation of on-line viscometer allows for improved sensitivity, thereby extending the range of this so-called "molar-mass-sensitive" detector into the monomeric regime. Detector multidimensionality is showcased via the synergism of on-line viscometry and refractometry, which combine to measure the intrinsic viscosity and viscometric radius of the sugars continually across the elution profiles of each diastereomer, methyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside and methyl-alpha-D- galactopyranoside.
and Trainoff, S.
Entropic-based separation of diastereomers. Size-exclusion chromatography with on-line viscometry and refractometry detection for analysis of blends of mannose and galactose methyl-alpha-pyranosides at "ideal" size-exclusion conditions, Chromatographia, [online], https://doi.org/10.1007/s10337-020-03983-z
(Accessed June 9, 2023)