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Enhancing Performance and Safety in Ambulances Through Improved Design Standards



Deogratias Kibira, Yung-Tsun T. Lee, Mehdi Dadfarnia


This paper describes how modeling and simulation can play a major role in developing standards recommendations for patient compartment layout of automotive ambulances in the United States to improve performance and safety. Acquiring necessary information from relevant stakeholders is shown as a method that can be used to determine user design requirements. The requirements will in turn be used to develop design concepts taking into consideration human interface with the ambulance work environment. The modeling and simulation of clinical care activities in the ambulance can be used to evaluate the design concepts and determine those that would better meet safety and performance requirements.
Technical Note (NIST TN) - 1741
Report Number


ambulance design, patient compartment, emergency clinical tasks, ergonomics, safety


Kibira, D. , Lee, Y. and Dadfarnia, M. (2012), Enhancing Performance and Safety in Ambulances Through Improved Design Standards, Technical Note (NIST TN), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed June 17, 2024)


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Created May 18, 2012, Updated November 10, 2018