The effect of protein corona composition on the interaction of carbon nanotubes with human blood platelets
Silvia H. De Paoli Lacerda, Lukasz L. Diduch, Tseday Tegegn, Martina Orecna, Michael Strader, Elena Karnaukhova, John E. Bonevich, Abdu Alayash, Karel Holada, Jan Simak
Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are one of the most promising nanomaterials for use in medicine. Applications of CNT in drug/gene delivery, diagnostics and tissue engineering, among other applications, require contact of CNT with blood. Therefore, evaluation of blood biocompatibility of CNT is a critical safety issue. In the bloodstream, proteins adsorb to CNT forming a protein corona which defines the biological identity and fate of the CNT. Here we characterize the interactions of carboxylated-multiwalled CNT (CNTCOOH) with common human proteins, and investigate the effect of the different protein coronas on the interaction of CNTCOOH with human blood platelets (PLT). Molecular modeling was used to evaluate the proteins topographic physical-chemical characteristics that potentially affect the adsorption process such as, surface hydrophobic and aromatic domains and electrostatic potential. Different photophysical techniques were employed to characterize the binding of albumin (HSA), fibrinogen (FBG), gamma-globulins (IgG) and histone H1 (H1) onto CNTCOOH. We found that protein corona greatly affects the interaction of CNTCOOH with PLT. Bare CNTCOOH induced PLT aggregation and release of platelet membrane microparticles (PMP). HSA and FBG coronas attenuated PLT aggregating activity of CNTCOOH. In contrast, IgG corona caused PLT fragmentation, and H1 corona induced strong PLT aggregation and release of PMP.