Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Durable Agents for Exposure Protection in Wildland/Urban Interface Conflagrations (NISTIR 6030)



Daniel M. Madrzykowski, G Roadarmel, Laurean A. DeLauter


The objective of this study was to investigate the capability of "durable agents" to protect building exterior materials from ignition. The "durable agents" used in this study included: a protein-based, compressed air foam, and two different water thickners, also known as gelling agents. Two exterior wall sections forming a corner were pre-treated with a "durable agent" and exposed to a 50 kW fire for 10 minutes. Flame extension on the exterior siding was recorded during the tests. This study demonstrated that durable agents applied to combustible exterior siding reduce the likelihood of ignition and flame spread.
NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR) - 6030
Report Number


fire safety, fire research, wildland fires, compressed air foam, water, gelling agents, experiments, ignition, fire spread, urban/wildland interface, siding


Madrzykowski, D. , Roadarmel, G. and DeLauter, L. (1997), Durable Agents for Exposure Protection in Wildland/Urban Interface Conflagrations (NISTIR 6030), NIST Interagency/Internal Report (NISTIR), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online], (Accessed April 21, 2024)
Created June 1, 1997, Updated November 10, 2018