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Dissolution Fundamentals of 193-nm Methacrylate Based Photoresists



Ashwin Rao, Shuhui Kang, B D. Vogt, Vivek Prabhu, Eric K. Lin, Wen-Li Wu, Karen Turnquest, W D. Hinsberg


The dissolution of partially deprotected chemically amplified photoresists is the final step in printing lithographic features. Since this process step can be tuned independently from the design of the photoresist chemistry, fundamental measurements of the dissolution behavior of photoresists may provide needed insights towards improving line-edge roughness. We have studied the dissolution behavior of a model 193-nm photoresist, poly (methyladamantyl methacrylate), as a function of deprotection extent and developer strength. The kinetics of the dissolution process is followed using the quartz crystal microbalance technique, while the steady state swelling behavior is studied by reflectivity methods. These photoresist films exhibit strong swelling without dissolution over a narrow-range of deprotection levels. At larger extents of deprotection, we observe a combination of swelling with dissolution. Additionally, we find a maximum degree of film swelling with tetramethylammonium hydroxide developer concentration. If photoresist swelling and dissolution strongly affect CD control or LER, these studies provide the insight needed to better design developer materials and strategies.
Proceedings Title
Proceedings of SPIE
Conference Dates
February 19-24, 2006
Conference Location
San Jose, CA, US
Conference Title
SPIE Advanced Lithography


dissolution, line edge roughness, photoresist, reflectivity, swelling


Rao, A. , Kang, S. , Vogt, B. , Prabhu, V. , Lin, E. , Wu, W. , Turnquest, K. and Hinsberg, W. (2006), Dissolution Fundamentals of 193-nm Methacrylate Based Photoresists, Proceedings of SPIE, San Jose, CA, US, [online], (Accessed April 24, 2024)
Created February 18, 2006, Updated October 12, 2021