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Development of the Advanced Encryption Standard



Miles E. Smid, James Foti


Strong cryptographic algorithms are essential for the protection of stored and transmitted data throughout the world. This publication discusses the development of Federal Information Processing Standards Publication (FIPS) 197, which specifies a cryptographic algorithm known as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The AES was the result of a cooperative multiyear effort involving the U.S. government, industry, and the academic community. Several difficult problems that had to be resolved during the standard's development are discussed, and the eventual solutions are presented. The author writes from his viewpoint as former leader of the Security Technology Group and later as acting director of the Computer Security Division at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, where he was responsible for the AES development.
Journal of Research (NIST JRES) -


Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), consensus process, cryptography, Data Encryption Standard (DES), security requirements, SKIPJACK.


Smid, M. and Foti, J. (2021), Development of the Advanced Encryption Standard, Journal of Research (NIST JRES), National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, [online],, (Accessed April 21, 2024)
Created August 16, 2021, Updated October 14, 2021