Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Controlled Vapor Deposition Approach to Generating Surface Energy/Chemistry Gradients



Julie N. Albert, Joey D. Kim, Christopher Stafford, Thomas H. Epps


Substrate surface energy/chemistry gradients provide a means for high-throughput exploration of the surface interactions that are important for many chemical and biological processes. We describe the implementation of a controlled vapor deposition approach to surface modification that enables the facile production of substrate surface energy/chemistry gradients while maintaining versatility in both the gradient profile and surface chemistry. Gradient formation relies on cross-deposition of functionalized chlorosilanes onto the substrate surface via vaporization of the deposition materials from liquid reservoirs under dynamic vacuum. The effects of liquid reservoir size, reservoir position relative to the substrate, vacuum application, and volatility of deposition materials are examined in detail and demonstrate the level of gradient tunability afforded by this vapor deposition approach.
Review of Scientific Instruments


gradient, surface energy, chlorosilanes, vapor phase, surface modfication


Albert, J. , Kim, J. , Stafford, C. and Epps, T. (2011), Controlled Vapor Deposition Approach to Generating Surface Energy/Chemistry Gradients, Review of Scientific Instruments, [online], (Accessed March 5, 2024)
Created June 8, 2011, Updated October 12, 2021