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Chip-Scale Atomic Frequency References: Fabrication and Performance



John E. Kitching, Svenja A. Knappe, Li-Anne Liew, John Moreland, Hugh Robinson, P Schwindt, V Shah, Vladislav Gerginov, Leo W. Hollberg


The physics package for a chip-scale atomic frequency standard was constructed and tested. The device has a total volume of 9.5 mm3, dissipates 75 mW of electrical power at an ambient temperature of 45 °C and has a short-term fractional frequency instability of 2.4×10-10/√τ. Advanced cell fabrication techniques indicate a long-term instability near 10-11 may be feasible
Proceedings Title
Proc. EFTF Conf.
Conference Dates
March 21-24, 2005
Conference Location


atomic, clock, compact, microfabrication., wafer bonding


Kitching, J. , Knappe, S. , Liew, L. , Moreland, J. , Robinson, H. , Schwindt, P. , Shah, V. , Gerginov, V. and Hollberg, L. (2005), Chip-Scale Atomic Frequency References: Fabrication and Performance, Proc. EFTF Conf., Besancon, , [online], (Accessed May 22, 2024)


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Created March 21, 2005, Updated February 17, 2017