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Characterization of Noise in CMOS Ring Oscillators at Cryogenic Temperatures



Prashansa Mukim, Pragya Shrestha, Advait Madhavan, Nitin Prasad, Jason Campbell, Forrest Brewer, Mark Stiles, Jabez J. McClelland


Allan deviation provides a means to characterize the time-dependence of noise in oscillators and potentially identify the source characteristics. Measurements on a 130nm, 7-stage ring oscillator show that the Allan deviation declines from 300K to 150K as expected, but surprisingly increases from 150K to 11K. At low temperatures, the measured Allan deviation can be well fit using a few random telegraph noise (RTN) sources over the range of a few kilohertz to a few gigahertz. Further, the RTN characteristics evolve to reveal an enhanced role in low-frequency noise at lower temperatures.
IEEE Electron Device Letters


Allan deviation, CMOS ring oscillator, noise, random telegraph noise, temperature, traps


Mukim, P. , Shrestha, P. , Madhavan, A. , Prasad, N. , Campbell, J. , Brewer, F. , Stiles, M. and McClelland, J. (2023), Characterization of Noise in CMOS Ring Oscillators at Cryogenic Temperatures, IEEE Electron Device Letters, [online],, (Accessed May 20, 2024)


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Created July 12, 2023, Updated August 28, 2023