Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Characterization of Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Low-K Thin Films Using X-Ray Porosimetry



V. J. Lee, Eric K. Lin, Barry J. Bauer, Wen-Li Wu, B K. Hwang, W D. Gray


Trimethylsilane based carbon doped silica films prepared with varying chemical vapor deposition process conditions were characterized using x-ray reflectivity and porosimetry to measure the film thickness, average film density, density depth profile, wall density, and porosity. Samples deposited under single or dual frequency conditions with either N2O or O2 as an oxidant were compared. The structural parameters were correlated with the chemical bond structure measured by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The density profiles of the porous films were uniform with a slight densification at the film surface. The distribution of pores was also uniform through the film. Films prepared under a single frequency and/or N2O atmosphere had the lowest film density, wall density and dielectric constant. The porosities of the films were similar and the pore sizes were less than 10 .
Applied Physics Letters
No. 7


CVD low-k dielectric material, porosity, porous thin film, small angle neutron scattering, x-ray porosimetry, x-ray reflectivity


Lee, V. , Lin, E. , Bauer, B. , Wu, W. , Hwang, B. and Gray, W. (2003), Characterization of Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Low-K Thin Films Using X-Ray Porosimetry, Applied Physics Letters, [online], (Accessed June 18, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created January 31, 2003, Updated October 12, 2021