Chapter 11. Dopant profiling in semiconductor nanoelectronics
Thomas M. Wallis, Pavel Kabos
As nanoelectronic device dimensions are scaled down to atomic sizes, device performance becomes more and more sensitive to the exact arrangement of atoms, including individual dopants and defects, within the device. Thus, there is ongoing demand for spatially-resolved measurements of dopant concentration. Due to the predominance of silicon-based micro- and nanoelectronics, the need for dopant profiling in semiconductors is particularly acute. This need has been underscored by the inclusion of dopant profiling in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors: Materials characterization and metrology methods are needed for control of interfacial layers, dopant positions, defects, and atomic concentrations relative to device dimensions. One example is three-dimensional dopant profiling . The ongoing development of alternative nanoelectronic devices based on emerging low-dimensional materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene also will benefit from enhanced capabilities to identify and characterize dopants. Ideally, dopant profiling tools are non-destructive, exhibit nanometer-scale or better spatial resolution, and are sensitive to both surface and subsurface features.
Measurement Techniques for Radio Frequency Nanoelectronics