A critical parameter in predicting tool wear during machining and in accurate computer simulations of machining is the spatially-resolved temperature at the tool-chip interface. We describe the development and the calibration of a nearly diffraction-limited thermal-imaging microscope to measure the spatially-resolved temperatures during the machining of an AISI 1045 steel with a tungsten-carbide tool bit. The microscope has a target area of 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm square region with a <5 mum spatial resolution and is based on a commercial InSb 128 focal plane array with an all reflective microscope objective. The minimum frame image acquisition time is < 1 ms. The microscope is calibrated using a standard blackbody source from the radiance temperature calibration laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and the emissivity of the machined material is deduced from the infrared reflectivity measurements. The steady-state thermal images from the machining of 1045 steel are compared to previous determinations of tool temperatures from micro-hardness measurements and are found to be in agreement with those studies. The measured average chip temperatures are also in agreement with the temperature rise estimated from energy balance considerations. From these calculations and the agreement between the experimental and the calculated determinations of the emissivity of the 1045 steel, the standard uncertainty of the temperature measurements is estimated to be about 45 degrees C at 900 degrees C.
Conference Dates: April 24-27, 2000
Conference Location: Orlando, FL
Conference Title: International Conference on Thermal Sensing and Imaging Diagnostic Applications: Thermosense XXII
Pub Type: Conferences
calibration, machining, microscopy, thermal imaging, tool-chip interface