Three-dimensional (3D) integration is a key enabling technology for compact, high-performance, and/or low-power electronics. This technology enables the fabrication of circuits with functions that commonly cannot be fabricated on a single substrate in a smaller 3D footprint, a key consideration in portable and wearable devices, or can enable higher density of transistors in a 3D footprint, a key consideration in high-performance computing. 3D stacking, in turn, is enabled by wafer bonding, whereby two or more wafers are bonded into a single device, which can then be inserted into a system.
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there-dimesional stacked integrated circuits (3DS-IC), packaging, integrated circuits