The Resonant Scattering and Diffraction effort seeks to develop measurements that provide spatial correlations in chemical, electronic, and physical structure in advanced materials. Scattering technology is developed as part of the NIST BNL partnership at the National Synchrotron Light Source II in Upton, NY. Specific goals of the project are to develop measurement technologies that measure correlated structure, such as the high probability of a crystal plane within some distance of another crystal plane. For the NIST BNL partnership, this is a relatively new area of emphasis in an effort that was traditionally focused on adsorbtion spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging. Building off of the expertise in those areas, the diffraction and scattering end stations illustrate the range of collaboration and technical objectives inherent in this effort.
The X-ray Diffraction station has been designed as a natural support for the high energy X-ray spectroscopy of the XAFS station. While XAFS provides local structure, diffraction is the longstanding approach to characterizing details of materials with long-range crystalline structure. The diffraction station has been designed, built, and operated in collaboration with IBM. That collaboration includes an IBM staff scientist as the primary instrument scientist for XRD, enabling easy engagement of the microelectronics industry within the NIST BNL partnership. with higher speed and higher sensitivity to achieve greater measurement capability, reliability, and information content.
In stark contrast, the Resonant Soft X-ray Scattering (RSoXS) station represents the edge of technology development with a new approach to characterization of correlated structure. Using the SST-I beamine, with a soft X-ray spectrum, RSoXS is anticipated to be a key approach to measurements of soft materials such as polymers and proteins. RSoXS development is funded through a NIST Innovations in Measurement Science Award, and is a collaboration with the NIST Materials Science and Engineering Division and the NIST Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology. The measurement will be capable of providing correlations in physical density, chemical composition, and molecular orientation. The final quantity is a new and unique window into materials characterization, providing an opportunity to address longstanding issues in polymer manufacturing, biological function, and energy storage.