Until newer sustainable energy technologies can be deployed, fossil fuels will remain the principal source of energy for the developed world. Coal, oil, and natural gas account for over 85 % of the energy consumed by the U.S. Along with the need for more efficient utilization of these resources, there is a need for the environmental management of electric utility combustion emissions and waste products, and pollutant emissions from vehicles using liquid fuels. Sulfur, mercury, and carbon are (or will likely be) subject to environmental regulations. Management of energy production from the specification of fossil fuel raw materials to the release of environmental pollutants from combustion processes, together with risk assessment of bulk waste products, such as fly-ash and flue gas de-sulfurization (FGD) gypsum, will require accurate analytical measurements, and there will undoubtedly be increasing demand for relevant reference materials to support the emerging needs of these markets.