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The Fall of Parity Photo Gallery with Short Biographies

Chien-Shiung Wu
Chien-Shiung Wu,

Chien-Shiung Wu, was born in Shanghai, China, in 1912. She received her Bachelor of Science degree in China in 1934 and came to the United States in 1936. After receiving her Ph.D. from the University of California in 1940, she taught at Smith College and at Princeton University before going to Columbia University in 1944. As a nuclear physicist Dr. Wu worked on the Manhattan Project during the second World War. She became a professor of physics at Columbia and later held honorary professorships at several Chinese Universities. Dr. Wu received numerous honors and awards, including being the first woman elected president of the American Physical Society. She died in New York in February 1997.

Ernest Ambler
Ernest Ambler,

Ernest Ambler was born in Bradford, England on November 20, 1923. He received his D. Phil degree from Oxford University in 1953 and joined the Cryogenic Physics Section of the National Bureau of Standards the same year. Dr. Ambler held several administrative positions of increasing responsibility at NBS until his retirement in 1989; he served as the Director of NBS from 1978 to 1988 and was Acting Under Secretary for Technology in the Department of Commerce 1988-89. Dr. Ambler's awards include the Arthur S. Flemming Award, the John Price Wetherill Medal from the Franklin Institute, the Samuel Wesley Stratton Award, and the President's Award for Distinguished Federal Civilian Service.


Raymond W. Hayward
Raymond W. Hayward,

Raymond Webster Hayward is a retired nuclear physicist who was born in Omaha, Nebraska on July 28, 1921. He received his B.S. degree from Iowa State College in 1943 and his Ph.D. from the University of California in 1950. Dr. Hayward was an electronic scientist for the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C., from 1943 until he came to NBS in 1950. He was also a professor at the University of Maryland from 1961 to 1982. He retired from NBS in 1986. Dr. Hayward has been awarded the John Price Wetherill Medal from the Franklin Institute, the Gold Medal of the U.S. Department of Commerce, and the Samuel Wesley Stratton Award of the National Bureau of Standards.

Dale D. Hoppes
Dale D. Hoppes,

Dale Hoppes was born in Liberty, Indiana on September 13, 1928. He received a B.S. degree from Purdue University in 1950 and his Ph.D. from Catholic University of America in 1961. He worked as a nuclear physicist at the National Bureau of Standards from 1950 and was leader of the Radioactivity Group at the time of his retirement in 1992. Dr. Hoppes was a member of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology and served as the U.S. delegate to section II of the Consultative Committee on Ionizing Radiation Metrology.


Ralph P. Hudson
Ralph P. Hudson,

Ralph P. Hudson is a retired physicist who was born in Wellingborough, England in 1924. He received his B.A. degree, Master's degree, and D.Phil (1949) from Oxford University. He was a scientific officer for the British Ministry of Supply, 1944-1946 and taught physics at Purdue University from 1949 to 1951. Dr. Hudson joined the Cryogenics Section of NBS in 1951 and was later Chief of that section, and then Chief of the Heat Division. He served as Deputy Director of the Center for Absolute Physical Quantities at NBS, 1978-1980. He was a staff member of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, in France, and Editor of Metrologia, 1980-1989. Dr. Hudson was a program manager at the National Science Foundation from 1989 to 1992, and intermittently since then. Dr. Hudson's honors include the John Price Wetherill Medal of the Franklin Institute, the Stratton and Condon Awards of the National Bureau of Standards, and the Gold Medal of the U.S. Dept. of Commerce.

Tsung Dao Lee
Tsung Dao Lee,

Tsung Dao Lee was born in Shanghai, China, in 1926. After studying at Zhejiang University, he won a scholarship in 1946 to the University of Chicago, where he received his Ph.D. degree in 1950. After appointments at the University of California and the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, Lee went to Columbia University where he eventually became the Enrico Fermi Professor of Physics. Beginning in 1981 he has also held Professorships at a number of Chinese universities. Professor Lee shared the Nobel Prize for Physics with Chen Ning Yang in 1957 and has received numerous other honors and awards.


Chen Ning Yang
Chen Ning Yang,

Chen Ning Yang was born in Hefei, Anhwei, China on September 22, 1922. He earned his B.S. degree in China in 1942 and his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1948. After leaving Chicago in 1949, Professor Yang was at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton until 1966. He is currently the Albert Einstein Professor of Physics, emeritus, at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and a distinguished professor at large of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Professor Yang shared the Nobel Prize for Physics with Tsung Dao Lee in 1957 and has received numerous other awards and honorary degrees.

Created April 28, 2015, Updated November 4, 2019