Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

B. Carol Johnson (Fed)

Research interests

Developing methods for improved radiometric characterization and calibration of instruments, the transfer of this knowledge to the user community, and in improving the metrology of radiometry in remote sensing global climate change research.


Serves on instrument design and calibration and validation peer reviews for NASA, NOAA, and EUMETSAT sensors and collaborates with ocean color calibration scientists.

Research projects

Remote Sensing Laboratory

Radiometric performance of Earth Remote Sensing Instruments 

Ocean color and vicarious calibration (Marine Optical BuoY, MOBY)


  • NIST Distinguished Career Award, 2020
  • DOC Gold Medal, 2013
  • DOC Silver Medal, 2004
  • Edward Bennett Rosa Award, 2002
  • Arthur S. Flemming Award, 1999
  • NIST Bronze Medal Award, 1996
  • National Research Council Postdoctoral Associateship, 1985-1987
  • Amelia Earhart Fellow, Zonta International, 1980-1983
  • Pickering Fellow, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 1979-1981

Selected Publications

Stray Light Correction of the Marine Optical System

M Feinholz, S Flora, M Yarbrough, Keith R. Lykke, Steven W. Brown, B. Carol Johnson, Dennis Clark
The Marine Optical System is a spectrograph-based sensor used in the Marine Optical Buoy for the vicarious calibration of ocean color satellite sensors. It is

Radiometric Characterization of Field Radiometers in Support of the 1997 Lunar Lake, Nevada, Experiment to Determine Surface Reflectance and Top-of-Atmosphere Radiance

Steven W. Brown, Bettye C. Johnson, Howard W. Yoon, James J. Butler, R Barnes, S F. Biggar, P R. Spyak, Kurtis J. Thome, E F. Zalewski, M Helmlinger, C J. Bruegge, S Schiller, G Fedosejevs, R Gauthier, S Tsuchida, S Machida
A continuing series of field campaigns to Lunar Lake, Nevada, has been established for the development of ground-truth measurement protocols and assessment of


Improved shadow correction for the Marine Optical BuoY, MOBY

Kenneth Voss, Edouard Leymarie, Stephanie Flora, B. Carol Johnson, Arthur Gleason, Mark Yarbrough, Michael Feinholz, Terrance Houlihan
A 3-D instrument self-shading correction has been developed for the MOBY upwelling radiance measurements. This correction was tested using the 23 year time

Characterization and Absolute Calibration of an AERONET-OC Radiometer

B. Carol Johnson, Giuseppe Zibordi, Steven W. Brown, Michael Feinholz, Mikhail Sorokin, Ilya Slutsker, John T. Woodward IV, Howard Yoon
The Ocean Color component of the global Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC) utilizes CE-318 sun photometers modified for above-water radiometry from fixed

A review of protocols for Fiducial Reference Measurements of water-leaving radiance for validation of satellite remote sensing data over water

Kevin Ruddick, Emmanuel Boss, Alexandre Castagna, Robert Frouin, Alex Gilerson, Martin Hieronymi, B. Carol Johnson, Joel Kuusk, Zhongping Lee, Michael Ondrusek, Viktor Vabson, Riho Vendt, Kenneth Voss, Giuseppe Zibordi
This paper reviews the state of the art of protocols for measurement of water-leaving radiance in the context of Fiducial Reference Measurements (FRM) of water
Created October 9, 2019, Updated December 8, 2022