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Firearms & Toolmarks Subcommittee

OSAC Firearms & Toolmarks SC icon

The Firearms & Toolmarks Subcommittee focuses on standards and guidelines related to the examination of firearm and toolmark evidence. This includes the comparison of microscopic toolmarks on bullets, cartridge cases, and other ammunition components and may also include firearm function testing, serial number restoration, muzzle-to-object distance determination, tools, and toolmarks.

Officers | Members | Standards | Other Work Products 



Erica Lawton, Subcommittee Chair, Alabama Department of Forensic Sciences; University of South Alabama

Todd Weller, Subcommittee Vice Chair, Weller Forensics, LLC

Melissa Oberg, Subcommittee Executive Secretary, Indiana State Police


Cassey Allen, Texas Department of Public Safety 

Carey M. Alvarez Bacha, Unified Metropolitan Forensic Crime Laboratory

Zachary Carr, Johnson County Sheriff's Office Criminalistics Laboratory

Eric Collins, Contra Costa County (California) Office of the Sheriff, Forensic Services Division

Jason Crafton, Missouri State Highway Patrol Crime Laboratory

William Demuth, II, Illinois State Police, Division of Forensic Services

Stefanie Happ, El Paso County Sheriff's Office

Stephanie Madon, Iowa State University (Human Factors Representative)

Max Morris, Ph.D., Iowa State University (Statistics Representative)

Rebecca Mullen, Arkansas State Crime Laboratory (Quality Representative)

Michael Neel, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives

Nicholas Petraco, City University of New York

James (Steve) Scott, Federal Bureau of Investigation - TEDAC Laboratory

Maneka Sinha, University of Maryland Carey School of Law (Legal Representative)

Erich Smith, Federal Bureau of Investigation

Johannes Soons, National Institute of Standards and Technology

Michael Stocker, National Institute of Standards and Technology

Ted Vorburger, National Institute of Standards and Technology/Stratevia


Tier 1: On the OSAC Registry

  • None currently.

Tier 2: Published by a Standards Developing Organization (SDO)

Tier 3: Sent to an SDO

Tier 4: Under Development

  • Standard for 3D Virtual Comparison Microscopy for Firearm and Toolmark Analysis.
  • Requirements and Recommendations for a Firearm and Toolmark Examiner Training Program.
  • Standard Test Method for the Examination and Restoration of Obliterated Serial Numbers.
  • Standard Test Method for the Examination and Comparison of Toolmarks for Source Attribution.
  • Standard Test Method for Muzzle-to-Garment Distance Determination.
  • Best Practice Recommendation for Muzzle to Target Measurements and Measuring its Uncertainty.

Other Work Products

Process Maps

Research & Development Needs

Reference Documents

Note: Subcommittee position statements or responses to data collections by the subcommittee do not necessarily represent the position of OSAC or NIST.

Webinars & Presentations

Discipline-Specific Bibliographies and Bibliographic References 

These documents may contain information that can help forensic scientists, judges, lawyers, researchers, and other readers to better understand the nature, scope, and foundations of the individual disciplines as they are currently practiced. The identification of these documents does not represent an endorsement by OSAC or NIST. Only standards that are posted on the OSAC Registry and Technical Guidance documents are endorsed by OSAC. These documents may be subject to copyright. Note: Subcommittee position statements or responses to data collections by the subcommittee do not necessarily represent the position of OSAC or NIST.

Created June 27, 2014, Updated January 19, 2021