Rapid advances in semiconductor manufacturing and associated technologies have increased the need for optical characterization techniques for materials analysis and in-situ monitoring/control applications. Optical measurements have many unique and attractive features for studying and characterizing semiconductor properties: (1) they are contactless, nondestructive, and compatible with any transparent ambient including high-vacuum environments; (2) they are capable of remote sensing, and hence are useful for in-situ analysis on growth and processing systems; (3) the high lateral resolution inherent in optical systems may be harnessed to obtain spatial maps of important properties of the semiconductor wafers or devices; (4) combined with the submonolayer sensitivity of a technique such as ellipsometry, optical measurements lead to unsurpassed analytical details; (5) the resolution in time obtainable using short laser pulses allows ultrafast phenomena to be investigated; (6) the use of multichannel detection and high-speed computers can be harnessed for extremely rapid data acquisition and reduction which is crucial for real-time monitoring applications such as in in-situ sensing; (7) they provide information that complements transport analyses of impurity or defect and electrical behavior; (8) they possess the ability to provide long-range, crystal-like properties and hence support and complement chemical and elemental analyses; and (9) finally, most optical techniques are table-top procedures that can be implemented by semiconductor device manufacturers at a reasonable cost. All optical measurements of semiconductors rely on a fundamental understanding of their optical properties. In this chapter, a broad overview of the optical properties of semiconductors is given, along with numerous specific examples.
Citation: Handbook of Optics
Publisher Info: McGraw Hill, New York, NY
Pub Type: Book Chapters
optical, semiconductor, lattice, carrier, magneto-optical, ellipsometry