The need for bone defect repair and regeneration arises from trauma, disease, congenital deformity, and tumor resection. Bone fracture occurs to seven million people each year in the United States, and musculoskeletal conditions cost $215 billion annually. Bone tissue engineering involves the use of three-dimensional scaffolds with cells guided for osteogenesis. This chapter describes a new class of self-setting, mechanically strong, and biomimetic nano-apatite scaffolds for stem cell delivery and bone tissue engineering. A self-setting calcium phosphate cement was used as the matrix material. Strong and macroporous scaffolds were developed via absorbable fibers, collagen, biopolymer chitosan, and mannitol porogens. The macroporous scaffolds were suitable for cell infiltration, and the nano-apatite crystals and the collagen fibers enhanced osteoblastic cell attachment. Resistance of the new scaffolds to fracture and cyclic fatigue were greatly increased, rendering the scaffolds promising for a wide range of moderate load-bearing dental, craniofacial and orthopedic repairs. The nano-apatitic scaffolds showed excellent biocompatibility with stem cells. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells attached to these scaffolds, proliferated, and differentiated down the osteogenic lineage. The nano-apatite-fiber scaffold morphologically mimicked the extracellular matrix of natural bone, and supported stem cell attachment and function. Potential applications of this new class of nano-apatitic scaffold/stem cell constructs include the major reconstructions of the maxilla, mandible and other craniofacial restorations, bone regeneration after trauma or tumor resection, in situ fracture fixation, and filling and strengthening osteoporotic bone lesions at risk for fracture.
Citation: Nanotechnology for Dental Applications
Publisher Info: Elesevier, Maryland Heights, MO
Pub Type: Books
stem cell, biomaterial, scaffold, ceramic, polymer, tissue engineering