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Journal of Research Volume 68D

Journal of Research of National Bureau of Standards, Section D: Radio Science

The Journal of Research of NIST and its predecessors report NIST research and development in metrology and related fields of: physical science, engineering, applied mathematics, statistics, biotechnology, information technology.

For additional information see: About the Journal

Volume 68D

ISSN: 0502-2568

Issue 1

Issue 2

Issue 3

Issue 4

Issue 5

Issue 6

Issue 7

Issue 8

Issue 9

Issue 10

Issue 11

Issue 12




Issue 1 January 1964

Corrections, p. iii
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.002

Comparison of observed vlf attenuation rates and excitation factors with theory, p. 1
Watt, A.D.; Croghan, R.D.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.006

Field intensity measurements at 10.2 kc/s over reciprocal paths, p. 11
Hanselman, J.C.; Bickel, J.E.; Casselman, C.J.; Tibbals, M.L.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.007

Propagation of VLF waves over distances between 1000 + 3000 km, p. 15
Burgess, B.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.008

Some experimental results concerning nonreciprocal East-West VLF wave propagation, p. 17
Burgess, B.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.009

An experimental study of phase stability of VLF signals, p. 19
Hampton, D.E.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.010

Some particular observations on diurnal phase variations of VLF transmissions received in Paris, p. 21
Decaux, B.; Gabry, A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.011

Periodic fading of VLF signals received over long paths during sunrise and sunset, p. 27
Crombie, D.D.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.012

Effects of wall perturbations in multimode waveguides, p. 35
Maley, S.W.; Bahar, E.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.013

VLF utilization at NASA satellite tracking stations, p. 43
Looney, C.H.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.014

Long waves associated with disturbances produced in plasmas, p. 47
Bremmer, H.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.015

Some remarks on the Watson transformation and mode theory, p. 59
Berry, L.A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.016

Concerning limitations and further corrections to geometric-optical theory for LF, VLF propagation between ionosphere and the ground, p. 67
Johler, J.R.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.017

Some remarks on mode and ray theories of VLF radio propagation, p. 79
Wait, J.R.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.018

Two-dimensional treatment of mode theory of propagation of VLF radio waves, p. 81
Wait, J.R.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.019

Reflection of electromagnetic waves from lossy magnetoplasma, p. 95
Wait, J.R.; Walters, L.C.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.020

Propagation of ELF waves below inhomogeneous anisotropic ionosphere, p. 103
Galejs, J.; Row, R.V.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.021

VLF propagation under ionosphere in the lowest mode of horizontal polarization, p. 105
Wheeler, H.A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.022

Propagation of VLF waves under disturbed conditions, p. 115
Burgess, B.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.023

VLF disturbances caused by trapped beta-rays from decay of neutrons produced in high-altitude nuclear explosions, p. 117
Zmuda, A.J.; Haave, C.R.; Shaw, B.W.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.024

VLF anomalies observed at State College, PA during U.S. 1962 high-altitude nuclear tests, p. 125
Sechrist, C.F.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.025

Establishment of new facilities for WWVL and WWVB, p. 135
Richardson, J.M.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.026


Issue 2 February 1964

Editorial, p. i
Little, C.G.; Manning, L.A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.004

Papers presented at symposium on ionospheric propagation of VLF radio waves - Preface, p. iii
Crombie, D.D.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.003
Generation of electromagnetic pulse by expanding plasma in conducting half-space, p. 147
Stogryn, A.P.; Ghose, R.N.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.027

Impedance of a monopole antenna with a radial-wire ground system on an imperfectly conducting half-space, Part 2, p. 157
Maley, S.W.; King, R.J.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.028
Capacitor type biconical antennas, p. 165
Galejs, Janis
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.029
Simulated angular response patterns for transhorizon propagation, p. 173
Strohbehn, J.W.; Waterman, A.T.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.030
Radio-star scintillations from ionospheric waves, p. 179
Warwick, J.W.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.031
Ionosonde studies of some chemical releases in ionosphere, p. 189
Wright, J.W.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.032
Diurnal changes of transmission time in arctic propagation of VLF waves, p. 205
Blackband, W.T.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.033
Geometrical optics convergence coefficient for whistler case, p. 211
Crary, J.H.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.034

Comments on a paper "Collisional detachment and the formation of ionospheric" by E. T. Pierce, p. 215
Arnold, H.R.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.035

Quasi-longitudinal approximation in the generalized theory of radio wave absorption, p. 219
Benson, R.F.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.036

Diurnal phase variation of VLF waves at medium distances, p. 225
Volland, H.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.037

Application of diffractions by convex surfaces to irregular terrain situations, p. 239
Dougherty, H.T.; Maloney, L.J.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.038

Effect of lossy earth on antenna gain, p. 251
Coe, R.J.; Curtis, W.L.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.039

Propagation of radio waves with frequency 99.9 mhz as a function of vertical structure of the atmosphere derived from daily radiosonde observations, p. 257
Braam, G.P.A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.040


Issue 3 March 1964

Interpretation of rapid changes in phase of horizontally polarized VLF waves recorded at night over a short path in the Southwestern United States, p. 265
Gossard, E.E.; Paulson, M.R.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.041

Precise phase and amplitude measurements on VLF signals propagated through the Arctic Zone, p. 275
Reder, F.H.; Winkler, G.M.R.; Abom, C.J.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.042

On the long term phase stability of 19.8 kc/s signal transmitted from Hawaii, and received at Boulder, Colorado, p. 283
Brady, A.H.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.043

Oblique propagation of groundwaves across a coastline - Part 3, p. 291
Wait, J.R.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.044

Impedance of a monopole antenna with a radial-wire ground system on an imperfectly conducting half space - Part 3, p. 297
Maley, S.W.; King, R.J.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.045

A simplified theory of diffraction at an interface separating two dielectrics, p. 303
Kane, J.; Karp, S.N.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.046

Variational solution for the admittance of a long cylindrical antenna, p. 311
Hurd, R.A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.047

Admittance of annular slot antennas radiating into a plasma layer, p. 317
Galejs, J.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.048

Propagation of plasma waves in a "spoke-wheel" magnetic field, p. 325
Liboff, R.L.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.049

An experimental investigation of signal strength in the area around a transmitter's antipode, p. 333
Pipp, R.M.; Webster, J.B.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.050

Relationship between simultaneous geomagnetic and ionspheric oscillations, p. 339
Rishbeth, H.; Garriott, O.K.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.051


Issue 4 April 1964

Some basic microwave phase shift nist-equations, p. 349
Beatty, R.W.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.052

A light-modulated scattering technique for diffraction field measurements, p. 355
Vural, A.M.; Cheng, D.K.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.053

Radiation from an aperture in a coated plane, p. 363
Knop, C.M.; Cohn, G.I.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.054

Impedance of a cylindrical dipole having a sinusoidal current distribution in a homogeneous anisotropic ionosphere, p. 379
Ament, W.S.; Katzin, J.C.; Katzin, M.; Koo, B.Y.-C.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.055

Propagation of electromagnetic waves through a continuously varying stratified anisotropic medium, p. 407
Price, G.H.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.056

Lunar semi-diurnal tides in h'F and their influence on transequatorial radio propagation, p. 419
Thomas, J.A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.057

Some statistical parameters related to the Nakagami-rice probability distribution, p. 429
Burns, W.R.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.058

The U.S. National committee Reports for Commission 6 of URSI Subcommission 6.3. Electromagnetics (Introduction and 4 Parts), p. 435
Siegel, K.M.; Rumsey, V.H.; Hansen, R.C.; Ksienski, A.; Ament, W.S.; Hoffman, W.C.; Zucker, F.J.; Wait, J.R.; Tai, C.T.; Collin, R.E.; Oliner, A.A.; Felsen, L.B.; Weston, V.H.; Burke, J.E.; Twersky, V.; Burke, J.R.; Kaiser, J.; Kay, I.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.059


Issue 5 May 1964

Editorial Note, p. i
Little, C.G.; Manning, L.A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.001

URSI National Committee Report, XIV General Assembly, Tokyo, September 1963: Commission 1. Radio Measurement Methods and Standards (7 sections and Appendix), p. 523
Mockler, R.C.; Engen, G.F.; Larsen, N.T.; Beatty, R.W.; Selby, M.C.; Mumford, W.W.; Fellers, R.G.; Bender, P.L.; White, C.E.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.060

URSI National Committee Report, XIV General Assembly, Tokyo, September 1963: Commission 2. Tropospheric Radio Propagation (7 Sections), p. 547
Bolgiano, R., Jr.; Bean, B.R.; Bigler, S.G.; Hogg, D.C.; Straiton, A.W.; Smyth, J.B.; Chisholm, J.H.; Pettengill, G.H.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.061

URSI National Committee Report, XIV General Assembly, Tokyo, September 1963: Commission 3. Ionospheric Radio (7 Sections), p. 569
Van Zandt, T.E.; Bowhill, S.A.; Matsushita, S.; Knecht, R.W.; Crombie, D.D.; Jean, A.G.; Wright, J.W.; Little, C.G. (editor)
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.062

URSI National Committee Report, XIV General Assembly, Tokyo, September 1963: Commission 4. Magnetospheric Radio (8 Sections), p. 597
Bauer, S.J.; Booker, H.G.; Crichlow, W.Q.; Disney, R.T.; Dessler, A.J.; Carpenter, D.L.; Gallet, R.M.; Winckler, J.R.; Arnoldy, R.L.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.063

URSI National Committee Report, XIV General Assembly, Tokyo, September 1963: Commission 5. Radio and Radar Astronomy (22 Sections), p. 631
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.064

URSI National Committee Report, XIV General Assembly, Tokyo, September 1963: Commission 7. Radio Electronics (10 sections), p. 655
Feinstein, J.; Peter, R.W.; van der Ziel, A.; Rafuse, R.; Karp, A.; Allison, J.; Bennett, W.R., Jr.; Haus, H. A.; Pershan, P.S.; Cutler, C.C.; Pierce, J.R.; Bers, A.; Chorney, P.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.065


Issue 6 June 1964

Electrical properties of sea ice at 0.1 to 30 Mc/s, p. 681
Wentworth, F.L.; Cohn, M.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.066

ELF and VLF waves below an inhomogeneous anisotropic ionosphere, p. 693
Galejs, J.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.067

The effects of a small local change in phase velocity on the propagation of a VLF radio signal, p. 709
Crombie, D.D.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.068

Auroral-zone absorption effects on an HF arctic propagation path, p. 717
Hunsucker, R.D.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.069

Amplitude-probability distribution of atmospheric radio noise, p. 723
Beckmann, P.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.070

An approximate method for computing diffraction atterns caused by ionospheric irregularities, p. 737
Gagnon, R.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.071

Wave propagation in stratified random media, p. 743
Chen, Y.M.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.072

Radar scattering from coated perfect conductors: application to the semi-infinite cone and use of exact eikonal, p. 749
Uberall, H.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.073


Issue 7 July 1964

Leader and junction processes in the lightning discharge as a source of VLF atmospherics, p. 771
Arnold, H.R.; Pierce, E.T.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.074

The return stroke of the lightning flash to earth as a source of VLF atmospherics, p. 777
Dennis, A.S.; Pierce, E.T.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.075

VLF propagation in a compressible ionosphere, p. 795
Kieburtz, R.B.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.076

A spectrographic interferometer, p. 807
Lee, R.H.; Warwick, J.W.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.077

Effect of lossy earth on antenna gain, Part 2, p. 813
Curtis, W.L.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.078

Calculation of groundwave attenuation in the far diffraction region, p. 819
Vogler, L.E.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.079

Some numerical results based on the theory of radio wave propagation over inhomogeneous earth, p. 827
Furutsu, K.; Hartmann, R.F.; Wilkerson, R.E.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.080

A note on VHF reflection from a tropospheric layer, p. 847
Wait, J.R.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.081

Some remarks on the use of statistics in radar astronomy, p. 849
Kay, I.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.082

A meteorological parameter for radioclimatological purposes, p. 851
Misme, P.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.083


Issue 8 August 1964

Extension of cosmic noise absorption measurements to lower frequencies, using polarized antennas, p. 859
Little, C.G.; Lerfald, G.M.; Parthasarathy, R.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.084

Broadband radio-star scintillations. Part 1. Observations, p. 867
Singleton, D.G.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.085

F-region irregularities studied by scintillation of signals from satellites, p. 881
Yeh, K.C.; Swenson, G.W., Jr.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.086

Angels, insects, and weather, p. 895
Lagrone, A.H.; Deam, A.P.; Walker, G.B.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.087

Measurement of the attenuation of radio signals by jungles, p. 903
Herbstreit, J.W.; Crichlow, W.Q.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.088

Influence of a circular ionospheric depression on VLF propagation, p. 907
Wait, J.R.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.089

An experimental study of mixed-path groundwave propagation, p. 915
Maley, S.W.; Ottesen, H.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.090


Issue 9 September 1964

Foreword
Beard, C.I. (editor); Hoffman, W.C. (editor)
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.005

Signal statistics, yesterday and today, p. 923
Stumpers, F.L.H.M.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.091

Rayleigh distribution and its generalizations, p. 927
Beckmann, P.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.092

Some nonlinear problems arising in the study of random processes, p. 933
Rosenblatt, M.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.093

Approach to empirical time series analysis, p. 937
Parzen, E.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.094

Effect of linear and nonlinear signal processing on signal statistics, p. 953
Balakrishnan, A.V.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.095

Random volume scattering, p. 967
Bremmer, H.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.096

Phase fluctuation statistics, p. 983
Smyth, J.B.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.097

Current topics in the stochastic theory of radiation, p. 989
Zucker, F.J.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.098

On the intensity distribution 2r/√αβ exp[-r2/2(1/α + 1/β)]i0(r2/2[1/β - 1/α]) and its application to signal statistics, p. 995
Nakagami, M.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.099

Statistical inference for Rayleigh distributions, p. 1005
Siddiqui, M.M.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.100

A probabilistic approach to the problem of large antenna arrays, p. 1011
Lo, Y.T.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.101

Influence of data processing on the design and communication of experiments, p. 1021
Golomb, S.W.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.102

Spectral measurement techniques in planetary radar, p. 1025
Pettengill, G.H.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.103

Quantum statistics and lasers, p. 1031
Gordon, J.P.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.104

Statistics of random surfaces, p. 1035
Kay, I.; Swerling, P.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.105

Modified Gaussian distributions for slightly nonlinear variables, p. 1049
Longuet-Higgins, M.S.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.106


Issue 10 October 1964

Theoretical heights and durations of echoes from large meteors, p. 1067
Manning, L.A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.107

Experimental determination of meteoric line densities and attachment rates, p. 1079
Manning, L.A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.108

Broadband radio-star scintillations 2. Interpretation, p. 1095
Singleton, D.G.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.109

A discussion of the theory of ionospheric cross modulation, p. 1109
Benson, R.F.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.110

Electron collision frequency in the ionospheric D region, p. 1123
Benson, R.F.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.111

Theory of a slotted-sphere antenna immersed in compressible plasma, Part 1, p. 1127
Wait, J.R.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.112

Theory of a slotted-sphere antenna immersed in a compressible plasma, Part 2, p. 1137
Wait, J.R.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.113

Electromagnetic scattering coefficients for concentric spheres and the problem of interference free enclosures, p. 1145
Eldred, R.A.; Roberts, J.; Lasitter, H.A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.114

Ionospheric sounding using coded pulse signals, p. 1155
Coll, D.C.; Storey, J.R.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.115

Measurement of the complex time-frequency channel correlation function, p. 1161
Bello, P.A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.116


Issue 11 November 1964

Interaction of an antenna with a hot plasma and the theory of resonance probes, p. 1171
Fejer, J.A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.117

Observations of earth-ionosphere cavity resonances and their interpretation in terms of a two-layer ionosphere model, p. 1177
Chapman, F.W.; Jones, D.L.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.118

On the theory of reflection of electromagnetic waves from the interface between a compressible magnetoplasma and a dielectric, p. 1187
Wait, J.R.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.119

Propagation over plane earth through an exponential atmosphere, p. 1193
Gerks, I.H.; Anderson, R.M.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.120

Propagation in nonuniform waveguides with impedance walls, p. 1201
Gallawa, R.L.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.121

Some approximate formulas concerning the reflection of electromagnetic waves from a stratified semi-infinite medium, p. 1215
Burman, R.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.122

A VLF timing experiment, p. 1219
Morgan, A.H.; Baltzer, O.J.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.123

Phase and time variations in VLF propagation over long distances, p. 1223
Crombie, D.D.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.124

Geometrical optics convergence coefficient for Whistler propagation, p. 1225
Allcock, G.McK.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.125

Errors induced by the atmosphere in microwave range measurements, p. 1229
Janes, H.B.; Thompson, M.C., Jr.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.126

Some features of Es-ionization of the equatorial ionsphere, p. 1237
Bandyopadhyay, P.; Montes, H.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.127

A note on the insulated loop antenna immersed in a conducting medium, p. 1249
Wait, J.R.; Spies, K.P.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.128

Observation and analysis of transequatorial propagation, p. 1251
Thomas, J.A.; Mcinnes, B.A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.129


Issue 12 December 1964

Experiment on constancy of velocity of electromagnetic radiation, p. 1265
Beckmann, P.; Mandics, P.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.130

Measurement of the phase velocity of VLF propagation in the earth-ionosphere waveguide, p. 1269
Steele, F.K.; Chilton, C.J.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.131

Wave hop theory of long distance propagation of low-frequency radio waves, p. 1275
Berry, L.A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.132

Wave propagation in a compressible ionosphere, Part 1, p. 1285
Seshadri, S.R.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.133

Wave propagation in a compressible ionosphere, Part 2, p. 1297
Seshadri, S.R.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.134

Spatial properties of the amplitude fading of continuous HF radio waves, p. 1309
Ames, J.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.135

Physical properties of the polar winter mesosphere obtained from low-frequency propagation and partial reflection studies, p. 1319
Belrose, J.S.; Bode, L.R.; Hewitt, L.W.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.136

Reply to the "Remarks by Donald H. Menzel with reference to Bailey's comments on solar electric fields," p. 1325
Bailey, V.A.
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.137

Memorial notice, p. 1336
http://dx.doi.org/10.6028/jres.068D.138

Created September 20, 2012, Updated September 21, 2016