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Chloride Ion Diffusion in Cement-Based Materials

Bibliography

Books

Chloride Penetration into Concrete, Eds. J.P. Ollivier and L.O. Nilsson, RILEM, 1997.

 

Articles

Spinks, J.W.T., Baldwin, H.W., and Thorvaldson, T., Tracer Studies of Diffusion in Set Portland Cement, Canadian Journal of Technology, Vol. 30, 20-28, 1952.

Collepardi, M., Marcialis, A., Turriziani, R., Penetration of Chloride Ions into Cement Pastes and Concretes, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 55 (10), 534-535, 1972.

Theissing, E.M., Hest-Wardenier, P.V., and de Wind, G., The Combining of Sodium Chloride and Calcium Chloride by a Number of Different Hardened Cement Pastes, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 8, 683-692, 1978.

Goto, S., and Roy, D.M., Diffusion of Ions Through Hardened Cement Pastes, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 11, 751-759, 1981.

Page, C.L., Short, N.R., and El Tarras, A., Diffusion of Chloride Ions in Hardened Cement Pastes, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 11 (3), 395-406, 1981.

Whiting, D., Rapid Measurements of Chloride Permeability of Concrete, Public Roads, Vol. 45 (3), 101-112, Dec. 1981.

Short, N.R., and Page, C.L., The Diffusion of Chloride Ions Through Portland and Blended Cement Pastes, Silicates Industriels, Vol. 10, 237-240, 1982.

Page, C.L., and Vennesland, O., Pore Solution Composition and Chloride Binding Capacity of Silica Fume Cement Pastes, Materials and Structures, Vol. 16, 19-25, 1983.

Atkinson, A., and Nickerson, A.K., The Diffusion of Ions Through Water-Saturated Cement, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 19, 3068-3078, 1984.

Midgely, H.G., and Illston, J.M., The Penetration of Chlorides into Hardened Cement Pastes, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 14, 546-558, 1984.

Kobayashi, K., Shuttoh, K., Tsuji, K., and Ogawa, K., Chloride Ion and Oxygen Diffusivities of Cementitious Materials, Transactions of the Japan Concrete Institute, Vol. 7, 173-180, 1985.

Lambert, P., Page, C.L., and Short, N.R., Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 15, 675, 1985.

Buenfeld, N.R., and Newman, J.B., Examination of Three Methods for Studying Ion Diffusion in Cement Pastes, Mortars, and Concrete, Materials and Structures, Vol. 20, 3-10, 1987.

Byfors, K., Influence of Silica Fume and Fly Ash on Chloride Diffusion and pH Values in Cement Paste, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 17, 115-130, 1987.

Mangat, P.S., and Gurusamy, K., Chloride Diffusion in Steel Fibre Reinforced Marine Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 17, 385-396, 1987.

Diab, H., Bentur, A., Heitner-Wirguin, C., and Ben-Dor, L., The Diffusion of Cl- Ions Through Portland Cement and Portland Cement-Polymer Pastes, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 18, 715-722, 1988.

Kayyali, O.A., and Haque, M.N., Chloride Penetration and the Ratio of Cl-/OH- in the Pores of Cement Paste, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 18, 895-900, 1988.

Gautefall, O., and Havdahl, J., Effect of Condensed Silica Fume on the Mechanism of Chloride Diffusion into Hardened Cement Paste, Fly Ash, Silica Fume, and Natural Pozzolans in Concrete, ACI SP-114, 849-860, 1989.

Arya, C., Buenfeld, N.R., and Newman, J.R., Factors Influencing Chloride-Binding in Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 20, 291-300, 1990.

Beaudoin, J.J., Ramachandran, V.S., and Feldman, R.F., Interaction of Chloride and C-S-H, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 20, 875-883, 1990.

Bentur, A., Diab, H., Ben-Dor, L., and Heitner-Wirguin, C., The Effect of in Situ Polymerization on the Chloride Diffusion and Microstructure of Polymer-Portland Cement Pastes and Mortars, Advances in Cement Research, Vol. 3 (9), 1-7, 1990.

Dhir, R.K., Jones, M.R., Ahmad, H.E., and Seneveratune, A.M., Rapid Estimation of Chloride Diffusion in Concrete, Magazine of Concrete Research, Vol. 42, 177-185, 1990.

Garboczi, E.J., Permeability, Diffusivity, and Microstructural Parameters: A Critical Review, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 20, 591, 1990.

Jaegermann, C., Effect of Water-Cement Ratio and Curing on Chloride Penetration into Concrete Exposed to Mediterranean Sea Climate, ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 87 (4), 333-339, 1990.

Clifton, J.R., Knab, L.I., Garboczi, E.J., and Xiong, L.X., Chloride Ion Diffusion in Low Water-to-Solid Cement Pastes, NISTIR 4549, U.S. Department of Commerce, April 1991.

Detwiler, R.J., Kjellsen, K.O., and Gjorv, O.E., Resistance to Chloride Intrusion of Concrete Cured at Different Temperatures, ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 89 (1), 19-24, 1991.

Page, C.L., Lambert, P., and Materials and Structures, Vol. 24, 2243-252, 1991.

Yu, S.W., and Page, C.L., Diffusion in Cementitious Materials: 1. Comparative Study of Chloride and Oxygen Diffusion in Hydrated Cement Pastes, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 21, 581-588, 1991.

Garboczi, E.J., and Bentz, D.P., Computer Simulation of the Diffusivity of Cement-Based Materials, Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 27, 2083-2092, 1992.

Rasheeduzzafer, Hussain, S.E., and Al-Saadoun, S.S., Effect of Tricalcium Aluminate Content on Chloride Binding and Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel in Concrete, ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 89 (1), 3-12, 1992.

Sergi, G., Yu, S.W., and Page, C.L., Diffusion of Chloride and Hydroxyl Ions in Cementitious Materials Exposed to a Saline Environment, Magazine of Concrete Research, Vol. 44, 63-69, 1992.

Tang, L., and Nilsson, L.-O., Rapid Determination of the Chloride Diffusivity in Concrete by Applying an Electrical Field, ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 89 (1), 49-53, 1992.

Tang, L., and Nilsson, L.-O., Chloride Diffusivity in High Strength Concrete at Different Ages, Nordic Concrete Research, Pub. 11 (1), 162-171, 1992.

Bentz, D.P., and Garboczi, E.J., A Computer Model for the Diffusion and Binding of Chloride Ions in Portland Cement Paste, NISTIR 5125, U.S. Department of Commerce, Feb. 1993.

Nagataki, S., Otsuki, N., Wee, T.H., and Nakashita, K., Condensation of Chloride Ion in Hardened Cement Matrix Materials and on Embedded Steel Bars, ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 90, 323-332, 1993.

Saetta, A.V., Scotta, R.V., and Vitaliani, R.V., Analysis of Chloride Diffusion into Partially Saturated Concrete, ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 90 (5), 441-451, 1993.

Snyder, K.A., and Clifton, J.R., Calculating Cement Paste and Mortar Diffusivity from Conductivity Measurements: Preliminary Results of a New Method, NISTIR 5235, U.S. Department of Commerce, Oct. 1993.

Andrade, C., and Sanjuan, M.A., Experimental Procedure for the Calculation of Diffusion Coefficients in Concrete from Migration Tests, Advances in Cement Research, Vol. 6, 127-134, 1994.

Gjorv, O.E., Tan, K., and Monteiro, P.J.M., Effect of Elevated Curing Temperature on the Chloride Permeability of High-Strength Lightweight Concrete, Cement, Concrete, and Aggregates, Vol. 16 (1), 57-62, 1994.

Mangat, P.S., and Molloy, B.T., Prediction of Long Term Chloride Concentration in Concrete, Materials and Structures, Vol. 27, 338-346, 1994.

Torii, K., and Kawamura, M., Pore Structure and Chloride Ion Permeability of Mortars Containing Silica Fume, Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 16, 279-286, 1994.

Zhang, T., and Gjorv, O.E., An Electrochemical Method for Accelerated Testing of Chloride Diffusivity in Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 24 (8), 1534-1548, 1994.

Bentz, D.P., Detwiler, R.J., Garboczi, E.J., Halamickova, P., and Schwartz, L.M., Multi-Scale Modelling of the Diffusivity of Mortar and Concrete , RILEM International Conference on Chloride Intrusion into Concrete, 1995.

Garboczi, E.J., Schwartz, L.M., and Bentz, D.P., Modelling the Influence of the Interfacial Zone on the Conductivity and Diffusivity of Concrete, Journal of Advanced Cement-Based Materials, Vol. 2, 169-181, 1995.

Halamickova, P., Detwiler, R.J., Bentz, D.P., and Garboczi, E.J., Water Permeability and Chloride Ion Diffusion in Portland Cement Mortars: Relationship to Sand Content and Critical Pore Diameter, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 25 (4), 790-802, 1995.

MacDonald, K.A., and Northwood, D.O., Experimental Measurements of Chloride Ion Diffusion Rates Using a Two-Compartment Diffusion Cell: Effects of Material and Test Variables, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 25 (7), 1407-1416, 1995.

Martys, N.S., Survey of Concrete Transport Properties and Their Measurement, NISTIR 5592, U.S. Department of Commerce, Feb. 1995.

Ngala, V.T., Page, C.L., Parrott, L.J., and Yu, S.W., Diffusion in Cementitious Materials: II. Further Inverstigations of Chloride and Oxygen Diffusion in Well-Cured OPC and OPC/30% PFA Pastes, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 25 (4), 819-826, 1995.

Streicher, P.E., and Alexander, M.G., A Chloride Conduction Test for Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 25 (6), 1284-1294, 1995.

Suryavanshi, A.K., Scantlebury, J.D., and Lyon, S.B., Pore Size Distribution of OPC and SRPC Mortars in Presence of Chlorides, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 25 (5), 980-988, 1995.

Tumidajski, P.J., Chan, G.W., Feldman, R.F., and Strathdee, G., A Boltzmann-Matano Analysis of Chloride Diffusion, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 25 (7), 1556-1566, 1995.

Zhang, T., and Gjorv, O.E., Effect of Ionic Interaction in Migration Testing of Chloride Diffusivity in Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 25 (7), 1535-1542, 1995.

Andrade, C., and Whiting, D., A Comparison of Chloride Ion Diffusion Coefficients Derived from Concentration Gradients and Non-Steady State Accelerated Ionic Migration, Materials and Structures, 29 (192), 476-484, 1996.

Bigas, J.P., Lambert, F., and J.P. Ollivier, Modelisation Globale des Interactions Physico-Chimiques Regies par des Isothermes Non Lineares Entre Ions Chlore et Mortier de Ciment Portland, Materials and Structures, 29, 277-285, 1996.

Delagrave, A., Marchand, J., and Samson, E., Prediction of Diffusion Coefficients in Cement-Based Materials on the Basis of Migration Experiments, Cement and Concrete Research, 26 (12), 1831-1842, 1996.

HETEK, Chloride Penetration into Concrete: State of the Art, Report No. 53, The Road Directorate, Copenhagen, 1996.

McGrath, P.F., and Hooton, R.D., Influence of Voltage on Chloride Diffusion Coefficients from Chloride Migration Tests, Cement and Concrete Research, 26 (8), 1239-1244, 1996.

Zhang, T., and Gjorv, O.E., Diffusion Behavior of Chloride Ions in Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 26 (6), 907-917, 1996.

Andrade, C., Diez, J.M., and Alonso, C., Mathematical Modeling of a Concrete Surface "Skin Effect" on Diffusion in Chloride Contaminated Media, Advanced Cement-Based Materials, Vol. 6, 39-44, 1997.

Hooton, R.D., Pun, P., Kojundic, T., and Fidjestol, P., Influence of Silica Fume on Chloride Resistance of Concrete, Proceedings of PCI/FHWA International Symposium on High Performance Concrete, New Orleans, 245-256, 1997.

Wee, T.H., Wong, S.F., Swaddiwudhipong, S., and Lee, S.J., A Prediction Method for Long-Term Chloride Concentration Profiles in Hardened Cement Matrix Materials, ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 94 (6), 565-576, 1997.

Amey, S.L., Johnson, D.A., Miltenberger, M.A., and Farzam, H., Predicting the Service Life of Concrete Marine Structures: An Environmental Methodology, ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 95 (1), 27-36, 1998.

Bentz, D.P., Garboczi, E.J., and Lagergren, E. S., Multi-Scale Microstructural Modeling of Concrete Diffusivity: Identification of Significant Variables, Cement, Concrete, and Aggregates, Vol. 20 (1), 129-139, 1998.

Dhir, R.K., Jones, M.R., and Ng, S.L.D., Prediction of Total Chloride Content Profile and Concentration/Time-Dependent Diffusion Coefficients for Concrete, Magazine of Concrete Research, Vol. 50 (1), 37-48, 1998.

M., Nagesh, and Bhattacharjee, B., Modeling of Chloride Diffusion in Concrete and Determination of Diffusion Coefficients, ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 95 (2), 113-120, 1998.

Thomas, M.D.A., and Bamforth, P.B., Modelling Chloride Diffusion in Concrete: Effect of Fly Ash and Slag, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 29 (4), 487-495, 1999.


For more information, contact:

Mr. Dale Bentz
dale.bentz@nist.gov

Contacts

Created June 21, 2017, Updated November 15, 2019