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AM Bench 2022 Measurements and Challenge Problems

Modelers are invited to submit simulation results for any challenges they like before the deadline of 23:59 (ET) on July 15, 2022.  Tabulated results using the challenge-specific templates are required for most challenges. A Q&A webinar will be held on May 5, 2022 for the metals benchmarks (01 – 05) and on May 6, 2022 for the polymers benchmarks (06 – 07).  Links to register for the Q&A webinar events for each challenge set are provided below. After the webinar is completed, links to the recorded presentations and to a FAQ page will be added to the benchmark description pages. For each set of benchmarks, a downloadable .pdf file is provided that describes all of the measurements and challenge problems. Additional information may become available later so updated versions of these documents may be posted.  Please check back occasionally. 

All evaluations of submitted modeling results will be conducted by the AM-Bench 2022 organizing committee.  Award plaques will be awarded at the discretion of the organizing committee.  Because some participants may not be able to share proprietary details of the modeling approaches used, we are not requiring such details.  However, whenever possible we strongly encourage participants to include with their submissions a .pdf document describing the modeling approaches, physical parameters, and assumptions used for the submitted simulations.

Please note that the challenge problems reflect only a small part of the validation measurement data provided by AM Bench for each set of benchmarks.  The Measurement Description sections for each set of benchmarks describe the full range of measurements conducted.

Metal AM Benchmarks

AMB2022-01: Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) 3D builds of nickel-based superalloy IN718 test objects. Detailed descriptions are found here (last updated 4/22/2022), and simulation results may be submitted AMBench [at] nist.gov (subject: AM-Bench%202022-01%20Modeling%20Results) (here). An informational webinar for AMB2022-01 and AMB2022-02 was held on May 5, 2022 and a link to the presentation is here.

  • Time Above Melting Temperature (CHAL-AMB2022-01-TAM): Time above the midpoint between the solidus and liquidus temperatures for the melt pool at specified locations within the build volume.  This metric is closely related to melt pool length but is explicitly location specific.
  • Solid Cooling Rate (CHAL-AMB2022-01-SCR): Cooling rate immediately following complete solidification (below solidus) at specified locations within the build.
  • Residual Elastic Strains (CHAL-AMB2022-01-RS): Residual elastic strain components at select locations internal to the bridge structure, corresponding to synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements. 
  • Part Deflection (CHAL-AMB2022-01-PD): Deflection of the as-built (no heat treatment) bridge structure after it is partially separated from the build plate.
  • Microstructure (CHAL-AMB2022-01-MS): Histograms of direction-specific grain sizes from specified regions within as-built and heat-treated samples.
  • Phase Evolution (CHAL-AMB2022-01-PE): Formation and evolution of phases and phase fractions, including major precipitates, as a function of time for heat treatments of IN718 from a 2.5 mm leg.

 

AMB2022-02: Laser powder bed fusion 3D builds of nickel-based superalloy IN718 test objects, produced using different laser scan patterns. Note that residual elastic strain, part deflection, and microstructure measurements will be added later to the AMB2022-02 data sets, but these will not be part of the current challenges. Detailed descriptions are found here (last updated 4/27/2022), and simulation results may be submitted AMBench [at] nist.gov (subject: AM-Bench%202022-02%20Modeling%20Results) (here). An informational webinar for AMB2022-01 and AMB2022-02 was held on May 5, 2022 and a link to the presentation is here.

  • Time Above Melting Temperature (CHAL-AMB2022-02-TAM): Time above the midpoint between the solidus and liquidus temperatures for the melt pool at specified locations within the build volume for the different laser scan patterns.  This metric is closely related to melt pool length but is explicitly location specific.
  • Solid Cooling Rate (CHAL-AMB2022-02-SCR): Cooling rate immediately following complete solidification (below solidus) at specified locations within the build for the different laser scan patterns.
  • Part Deflection (CHAL-AMB2022-02-PD): Deflection of the as-built (no heat treatment) bridge structure after it is partially separated from the build plate.

 

AMB2022-03: Individual laser tracks on bare metal plates of IN718 with different laser power, speed, and diameter settings. Also, arrays of adjacent laser tracks (pads) on bare metal plates of IN718 matching the odd and even layer scan patterns of the 2.5 mm thick leg from the 3D builds in AMB2022-01. Detailed descriptions are found here (last updated 5/26/2022), and simulation results may be submitted AMBench [at] nist.gov (subject: AM-Bench%202022-03%20Modeling%20Results) (here). An informational webinar for AMB2022-03 was held on May 5, 2022 and a link to the presentation is here.

 

  • Track Solid Cooling Rate (CHAL-AMB2022-03-TSCR): Cooling rate immediately following complete solidification (below solidus) at the center of each track for all processing conditions.
  • Track Liquid Cooling Rate (CHAL-AMB2022-03-TLCR): Liquid cooling rate immediately before start of solidification (above liquidus) at the center of each track for all processing conditions.
  • Track Time Above Melt (CHAL-AMB2022-03-TAM): Time above the midpoint between solidus and liquidus temperature (assumed to be 1 298 °C) for single laser-scanned tracks.
  • Track Melt Pool Geometry (CHAL-AMB2022-03-TMPG): The laser track width & depth near the center of each track for all processing conditions. 
  • Pad Solid Cooling Rate (CHAL-AMB2022-03-PSCR): Cooling rate immediately following complete solidification (below solidus) at the center of each track for all processing conditions.
  • Pad Time Above Melting (CHAL-AMB2022-03-PTAM): Time above the midpoint between solidus and liquidus temperature (assumed to be 1 298 °C) liquidus temperature for specified locations of the X-Pads and Y-Pads.
  • Pad Melt Pool Geometry (CHAL-AMB2022-03-PMPG): Laser track depth and geometrical measurements describing the overlapping laser tracks near the center and near the edge of both X-Pads and Y-Pads. 

 

AMB2022-04: Mechanical measurement extension to AMB2018-01: laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) 3D builds of nickel-based superalloy IN625 test objects. Detailed descriptions are found here, and simulation results may be submitted here. An informational webinar for AMB2022-04 was held on May 5, 2022 and a link to the presentation is here.

  • Subcontinuum Mesoscale Tensile Test (CHAL-AMB2022-04-MeTT): Predict subcontinuum stress strain behavior, fracture location, and width reduction of as-built IN625 meso-scale specimens. Please see the NIST Public Data Repository for this challenge for more detailed information and all data.
  • Macroscale Tensile Tests at Different Orientations (CHAL-AMB2022-04-MaTO): Predict bulk/continuum stress strain behavior of as-built IN625 tensile specimens at different specimen tensile axis orientations with respect to the build direction.  Please see the NIST Public Data Repository for this challenge for more detailed information and all data.
  • Macroscale Compression at Different Temperatures and Orientations (CHAL-AMB2022-04-MaCTO): Predict bulk/continuum stress strain behavior of as built IN625 compression specimens at different specimen compression axis orientations with respect to the build at three temperatures.

 

AMB2022-05: Microstructure measurement extension to AMB2018-01: laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) 3D builds of nickel-based superalloy IN625 test objects. Detailed descriptions are found here, and simulation results may be submitted AMBench [at] nist.gov (subject: AM-Bench%202022-05%20Modeling%20Results) (here). An informational webinar for AMB2022-05 was held on May 5, 2022 and a link to the presentation is here.

  • Microstructure (CHAL-AMB2022-05-MS): Histograms of direction-specific grain sizes from specified regions within an as-built specimen.

Polymer AM Benchmarks

AMB2022-06:  Thermoplastic material extrusion of polycarbonate and polylactic acid test objects. Detailed descriptions are found here (last updated 5/9/2022), and simulation results may be submitted AMBench [at] nist.gov (subject: AM-Bench%202022-06%20Modeling%20Results) (here). An informational webinar for AMB2022-06 was held on May 6, 2022 and a link to the presentation is here.

  • Road Width (CHAL-AMB2022-08-EW): The maximum horizontal width of a single-printed road. [scalar]
  • Road Dimensionless Cross Section (CHAL-AMB2022-08-DCS): Shape of the cross section of a single road. Will be scaled to match benchmark results.  [2D area or perimeter].
  • Road Cross Section (CHAL-AMB2022-08-CS): Shape of the cross section. Will not be scaled, must be dimensionally accurate. [2D area or perimeter].

 

AMB2022-07: Vat Photopolymerization Measurements of Cure Depth and Print Fidelity Vs. Varied Exposure Duration, Photopattern Dimensions, and Resin Characteristics.Detailed descriptions are found here (last updated 4/27/2022), and simulation results may be submitted AMBench [at] nist.gov (subject: AM-Bench%202022-07%20Modeling%20Results) (here). An informational webinar for AMB2022-07 was held on May 6, 2022 and a link to the presentation is here.

  • Optical Profile at Print Plane (CHAL-AMB2022-07-OP): Light intensity profile at the print plane.
  • Cure Depth Dependence on Photomask Dimensions (CHAL-AMB2022-07-CD): Cure depth as a function of photomask linewidth and resin characteristics.
  • Print Profile (CHAL-AMB2022-07-PP): Solid cross section profile of the printed patterns as a function of photomask linewidth and resin characteristics.
Created April 19, 2022, Updated June 22, 2022