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Witnessing the survival of time-energy entanglement through biological tissue and media



Daniel J. Lum, Michael Mazurek, Alexander Mikhaylov, Kristen M. Parzuchowski, Ryan M. Wilson, Marcus Cicerone, Ralph Jimenez, Thomas Gerrits, Martin Stevens, Charles Camp


In this work, we demonstrate the preservation of time-energy entanglement of near-IR photons through thick biological media (< 1.55 mm) and tissue (< 235 um) at room temperature. Using a Franson-type interferometer, we demonstrate interferometric contrast of over 0.90 in skim and 2% milk as well as chicken tissue. This work supports the many proposed opportunities for non-classical light in biological imaging and analyses, clearly indicating that the entanglement characteristics of photons can be maintained even after propagation through thick, turbid biological samples.
Biomedical Optics Express


quantum optics, quantum interferometry, biological imaging, biological sensing, optical scattering, entanglement, nonclassical light


Lum, D. , Mazurek, M. , Mikhaylov, A. , Parzuchowski, K. , Wilson, R. , Cicerone, M. , Jimenez, R. , Gerrits, T. , Stevens, M. and Camp, C. (2021), Witnessing the survival of time-energy entanglement through biological tissue and media, Biomedical Optics Express, [online],, (Accessed May 27, 2024)


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Created June 9, 2021, Updated October 12, 2021