Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Vortices in a Bose-Einstein Condensate



M R. Matthews, B P. Anderson, P C. Haljan, C E. Wieman, Eric A. Cornell


We have created vortices in two-component Bose-einstein condensates. The vortex state was created through a coherent process involving the spatial and temporal control of interconversion between the two components. Using an interference technique, we map the phase of the vortex state to confirm that it possesses angular momentum. We can create vortices in either of the two components and have observed differences in the dynamics and stability.
Physical Review Letters
No. 13


bose-einstein condensate, superfluid, vortex


Matthews, M. , Anderson, B. , Haljan, P. , Wieman, C. and Cornell, E. (1999), Vortices in a Bose-Einstein Condensate, Physical Review Letters (Accessed July 25, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created August 31, 1999, Updated October 12, 2021