Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Viewing Angle: A Matter of Perspective



T. G. Fiske, L. D. Silverstein, C. Penn, Edward F. Kelley


Setting viewing angle requirements and specifications for displays depends on how viewing angle is defined. There is significant confusion in the industry regarding the definition and use of horizontal and vertical viewing angle. Moreover, the relations between viewing angle defined in Cartesian coordinates and common representations in spherical and goniometer-specific coordinates are often confused. This paper will show how incorrect definitions of viewing angle and failures to apply appropriate transformations between coordinate systems lead to errors in setting specifications and reporting results.
Proceedings Title
Viewing Angle: A Matter of Perspective
Conference Dates
May 17-22, 1998
Conference Location
Anaheim, CA


display measurement, display modeling, display standards, viewing angle


Fiske, T. , Silverstein, L. , Penn, C. and Kelley, E. (1998), Viewing Angle: A Matter of Perspective, Viewing Angle: A Matter of Perspective, Anaheim, CA, [online], (Accessed May 23, 2024)


If you have any questions about this publication or are having problems accessing it, please contact

Created April 30, 1998, Updated October 12, 2021