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Using BEES to Select Cost-Effective Green Products



Barbara C. Lippiatt, A Boyles


The BEES (Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability) version 2.0 software implements a rational, systematic technique for selecting environmentall and economically balanced building products. The technique is based on consensus standards and designed to be practical, flexible, and transparent. The Windows-based decision support software, aimed at designers, builders, and product manufacturers, includes actual environmental and economic perforamnce data for 65 building products across a range of functional applications. BEES measures the environmental performance of building products using the environmental life-cycle assessment approach specified in ISO 14040 standards. All stages in life of a product are analyzed: raw materials acquisition, manufacture, transportation, installation, use, and waste management. Economic performance is measured using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard life-cycle cost method (E 917), which covers the costs of initial investment, replacement, operation, maintenance and repair, and disposal. Environmental and economic performance are combined into an overall performance measure using the ASTM standard for Multiattribute Decision Analysis (E 1765). For the entire BEES analysis, builidng products are defined and classified based on the ASTM standard classification for building elements known as UNIFORMAT II (E 1557). This paper presents a case example illustrating the BEES approach.
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment
No. 2


building products, economic performance, environmental performance, green buildings, life cycle assessment, life-cycle costing, multiattribute decision analysis, sustainable development


Lippiatt, B. and Boyles, A. (2001), Using BEES to Select Cost-Effective Green Products, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, [online], (Accessed June 22, 2024)


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Created March 1, 2001, Updated February 19, 2017